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 Welcome to my Note Book 1 2 3
A confusing cacophony  of shrill impressionistic mockery & hyperbolical name droppings claiming The End IS Neigh! Or some such poppycock.
Home     |     home Please use the mouse back button & or arrows to  navigate  previous next down
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Just as I said. I have been saying it all along. Rather than calling it any thing like ?"There is a revolution just beginning" (among Europeans) Melinest
 and Eurocentrest hominids agree! http://www.electric-cosmos.org There is a revolution just beginning in astronomy/cosmology that will rival
 the one set off Copernicus and Galileo.  This revolution is based on the growing realization that the cosmos is highly electrical in nature.  It is becoming
clear that 99%   of by the universe is made up not of "invisible matter", but \rather, of matter in the plasma state.  Electrodynamic forces in electric plasmas are much stronger than the gravitational force.
Pre-ColumbianMuslimsinAmericas
Time reveals all things  (Tempus Omnia Revelat).
The scanned celery root looks like the fleshy spawn of a mutant creature with what appear to be stunted fingers, tentacles & a verity of rodent  tails.
One might say "I will  never eat anything as ugly as that" but things are seldom what they first appear to be it is actually quite savory and worth a try.

Blacks in California History

How California got its name.

In 1535, The Spaniard Hernan de Cortes sailed west from the coast of New Spain (Mexico) in search of a mythical island inhabited by strong, black women, and rich with gold. The island, called "California" in an account by Garcia Ordonez Montalvo in 1510, was ruled by the queen "Califia."

Along with a company of 700 conquistadors, three hundred of whom were of African descent, Cortes landed at the southern tip of what we now know as the Baja peninsula. Spanish maps began calling this land "California" and depicted it as an island for more than 150 years.
African Americans Were Among the Earliest Californians

For the next 200 years, the Spanish pushed northward, exploring, expanding their territory, and establishing missions. By 1769 the explorers reached what is now the state of California and over the next 15 years created a series of missions along the coast. Early census data show that nearly half of the Spanish soldiers and the pobladores (settlers) that accompanied them and settled the mission lands were of African descent.
Land Owners

As seen in this picture of a diorama from the Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History, 26 of the 46 pobladores who settled Los Angeles, and similar proportions of the founders of San Diego, Santa Barbara, San Jose, Monterey were of African ancestry. Their descendants became holders of land grants after the Mexican Revolution and the end of the mission system. Properties such as Rancho Rodeo de Aguas (Beverly Hills), Malibu, Venice, the current Camp Pendleton, the entire Orange County and the San Fernando Valley were held in those land grants.

By 1848 the more than two million acres throughout California held by Black grantees fell under threat as more than 50,000 gold seekers flowed into California from the East.

By: Dr. Youssef Mroueh

INTRODUCTION
Numerous evidence suggests that Muslims from Spain and West Africa
arrived to the Americas at least five centuries before Columbus. It is
recorded,for example, that in the mid-tenth century, during the rule of
the Ummayyed Caliph Abdul-Rahman III (929-961 CE), Muslims of African
origin sailed westward from the Spanish port of DELBA (Palos) into the
"Ocean of darkness and fog". They returned after a long absence with
much booty from a "strange and curious land". It is evident that people of
Muslim origin are known to have accompanied Columbus and subsequent
Spanish explorers to the New World.

The last Muslim stronghold in Spain, Granada, fell to the Christians in
1492 CE, just before the Spanish inquisition was launched. To escape
persecution, many non-Christians fled or embraced Catholicism. At least
two documents imply the presence of Muslims in Spanish America before
1550 CE. Despite the fact that a decree issued in 1539 CE by Charles V,
 king of Spain, forbade the grandsons of Muslims who had been burned at
the stake to migrate to the West Indies. This decree was ratified in 1543 CE,
 and an order for the expulsion of all Muslims from overseas Spanish
territories was subsequently published. Many references on the Muslim
arrival to Americas are available. They are summarized in the following

A: HISTORIC DOCUMENTS:
1. A Muslim historian and geographer ABUL-HASSAN ALI IBN AL-HUSSAIN
AL-MASUDI (871-957 CE) wrote in his book Muruj adh-dhahab wa maadin
aljawhar (The meadows of gold and quarries of jewels) that during the
rule of the Muslim caliph of Spain Abdullah Ibn Mohammad (888-912 CE), a
Muslim navigator, Khashkhash Ibn Saeed Ibn Aswad, from Cortoba, Spain
sailed from Delba (Palos) in 889 CE, crossed the Atlantic, reached an
 unknown territory (ard majhoola) and returned with fabulous treasures. In
Al-Masudi's map of the world there is a large area in the ocean of darkness
 and fog which he referred to as the unknown territory (Americas).(1)

2. A Muslim historian ABU BAKR IBN UMAR AL-GUTIYYA narrated that
during the reign of the Muslim caliph of Spain, Hisham II (976-1009CE),  
another Muslim navigator, Ibn Farrukh, from Granada, sailed from Kadesh
(February 999CE) into the Atlantic, landed in Gando (Great Canary islands)
visiting King Guanariga, and continued westward where he saw and named
 two islands,Capraria and Pluitana. He arrived back in Spain in May 999 CE.(2)

3. Columbus sailed from Palos (Delba), Spain. He was bound for GOMERA
(Canary Islands)-Gomera is an Arabic word meaning 'small firebrand' -
there he fell in love with Beatriz BOBADILLA, daughter of the first captain
general of the island (the family name BOBADILLA is derived from the Arab
Islamic name ABOU ABDILLA.).Nevertheless, the BOBADILLA clan
was not easy to ignore. Another Bobadilla (Francisco) later, as the royal
commissioner, put Columbus in chains and transferred him from Santo
Dominigo back to Spain (November 1500 CE). The BOBADILLA family was
related to the ABBADID dynasty of Seville (1031-1091 CE). On October
12,1492 CE, Columbus landed on a little island in the Bahamas that was
called GUANAHANI by the natives. Renamed SAN SALVADOR by Columbus.
GUANAHANI  is derived from Mandinka and modified Arabic words. GUANA
(IKHWANA) means 'brothers' and HANI is an Arabic name.Therefore the
original name of the island was 'HANI BROTHERS'. (11) Ferdinand Columbus,
 the son of Christopher, wrote about the blacks seen by his father in Handuras:
"The people who live farther east of Pointe Cavinas, as far as Cape Gracios
a Dios, are almost black in color." At the same time, in this very same region,
 lived a tribe of Muslim natives known as ALMAMY. In Mandinka and Arabic
languages, ALMAMY was the designation of "AL-IMAM"or "AL-IMAMU", the
 leader of the prayer,or in some cases, the chief of the community,and/or a
 member of the Imami Muslim community. (12)

NOTES
4. A renowned American historian and linguist, LEO WEINER of Harvard
University, in his book, AFRICA AND THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA (1920)
wrote that Columbus was well aware of the Mandinka presence in the New
World and that the West African Muslims had spread throughout the Caribbean,
Central, South and North American territories, including Canada,where
they were trading and intermarrying with the Iroquois and Algonquin Indians.
(13)

B: GEOGRAPHIC EXPLORATIONS:
1. The famous Muslim geographer and cartographer AL-SHARIF AL-IDRISI
(1099- 1166CE) wrote in his famous book Nuzhat al-mushtaq fi ikhtiraq
al-afaq (Excursion of the longing one in crossing horizons) that a
group of seafarers (from North Africa) sailed into the sea of darkness and
fog (The Atlantic ocean) from Lisbon (Portugal), in order to discover what
was in it and what extent were its limits. They finally reached an island
that had people and cultivation...on the fourth day, a translator spoke to
them in the Arabic language. (3)

2. The Muslim reference books mentioned a well-documented description
of a journey across the sea of fog and darkness by Shaikh ZAYN EDDINE
 ALI BEN FADHEL AL-MAZANDARANI. His journey started from Tarfaya
(South Morocco) during the reign of the King Abu-Yacoub Sidi Youssef
(1286-1307CE) 6th of the Marinid dynasty, to Green Island in the Caribbean
 sea in 1291 CE (690 HE). The details of his ocean journey are mentioned in
 Islamic references, and many Muslim scholars are aware of this recorded
 historical event..(4)

3. The Muslim historian CHIHAB AD-DINE ABU-L-ABBAS AHMAD BEN FADHL
AL-UMARI (1300-1384CE/700-786HE) described in detail the geographical
explorations beyond the sea of fog and darkness of Mali's sultans in  his
 famous book Massaalik al-absaar fi mamaalik al-amsaar (The pathways of
sights in the provinces of kingdoms).(5)

4. Sultan MANSU KANKAN MUSA (1312-1337 CE) was the world renowned
Mandinka monarch of the West African Islamic empire of Mali. While travelling
 to Makkah on his famous Hajj in 1324 CE, he informed the scholars of the
Mamluk Bahri sultan court (An-Nasir Nasir Edin Muhammad III-1309-1340
CE) in Cairo, that his brother, sultan Abu Bakari I (1285-1312CE) had
undertaken two expeditions into the Atlantic Ocean. When the sultan did
not return to Timbuktu from the second voyage of 1311 CE, Mansa Musa
became sultan of the empire. (6)

5. Columbus and early Spanish and portuguese explorers were able to
voyage across the Atlantic (a distance of 2400 Km's) thanks to Muslim
geographical and navigational information. In particular maps made by
Muslim traders, including AL-MASUDI (871-957CE) in his book Akhbar
az-zaman (History of the world) which is based on material gathered in
Africa and Asia (9). As a matter of fact, Columbus had two captain of
muslim origin during his first transatlantic voyage: Martin Alonso
Pinzon was the captain of the PINTA,and his brother Vicente Yanez Pinzon
 was the captain of the NINA. They were wealthy, expert ship outfitters who
helped organize the Columbus expedition and prepared the flagship, SANTA
MARIA.They did this at their own expense for both commercial and political
reasons. The PINZON family was related to ABUZAYAN MUHAMMAD III
(1362-66 CE), the Moroccan sultan of the Marinid dynasty (1196-1465CE).
(10)

C: ARABIC ( ISLAMIC ) INSCRIPTIONS:
1. Anthropologists have proven that the Mandinkos under Mansa Musa's
instructions explored many parts of North America via the Mississippi
andother rivers systems. At Four Corners, Arizona, writings show that they
even brought elephants from Africa to the area.(7)

2. Columbus admitted in his papers that on Monday, October 21,1492 CE
while his ship was sailing near Gibara on the north-east coast of Cuba,
he saw a mosque on top of a beautiful mountain. The ruins of mosques and
minarets with inscriptions of Quranic verses have been discovered in
Cuba,Mexico,Texas and Nevada. (8)

3. During his second voyage, Columbus was told by the indians of ESPANOLA
(Haiti), that black people had been to the island before his arrival.
For proof, they presented Columbus with the spears of these African
muslims.These weapons were tipped with a yellow metal that the indians
called GUANIN, a word of West African derivation meaning 'gold alloy'. Oddly
enough, it is related to the Arabic word 'GHINAA' which means 'WEALTH'.
Columbus brought some GUANINES back to Spain and had them tested. He
learned that the metal was 18 parts gold (56.25%), 6 parts silver (18.75%)
 and 8 parts copper (25%), the same ratio as the metal produced in
African metalshops of Guinea. (14)

4. In 1498 CE, on his third voyage to the new world, Columbus landed in
Trinidad. Later, he sighted the South American continent, where some of
his crew went ashore and found natives using colorful handkerchiefs of
symmetrically woven cotton. Columbus noticed that these handkerchiefs
resembled the headdresses and loinclothes of Guinea in their colors,
style and function. He refered to them as ALMAYZARS. ALMAYZAR is
an Arabic word for 'wrapper','cover','apron' and/or 'skirting' which was
the cloth the Moors (Spanish or North African Muslims) imported from
west Africa (Guinea) into Morocco, Spain and Portugal. During this voyage,
Columbus was surprised that the married women wore cotton panties
 (bragas) and he wondered where these natives learned their modesty.
Hernan Cortes, Spanish conqueror, described the dress of the Indian
women as 'long veils' and  the dress of Indian men as 'breechcloth painted
in the style of Moorish draperies'. Ferdinand Columbus called the native
cotton garments 'breechclothes of the same design and cloth as the shawls
 worn by theMoorish women of Granada'. Even the similarity of the children's
hammocks to those found in North Africa was uncanny.(15)

5. Dr. Barry Fell (Harvard University) introduced in his book 'Saga
America-1980' solid scientific evidence supporting the arrival,
centuries before Columbus, of Muslims from North and West Africa. Dr. Fell
discovered the existence of the Muslim schools at Valley of Fire, Allan
Springs, Logomarsino, Keyhole, Canyon, Washoe and Hickison Summit Pass
(Nevada), Mesa Verde (Colorado), Mimbres Valley (New Mexico) and Tipper
Canoe(Indiana) dating back to 700-800 CE. Engraved on rocks in the arid
western U.S, he found texts, diagrams and charts representing the last
surviving fragments of what was once a system of schools - at both an
elementary and higher level. The language of instruction was North
African Arabic written with old Kufic Arabic scripts. The subjects of
instruction included writing, reading, arithmetic, religion, history, geography,
mathematics, astronomy and sea navigation. The descendants of the
Muslim visitors of North America are members of the present Iroquois,
Algonquin, Anasazi, Hohokam and Olmec native people..(16)

6. There are 565 names of places (villages, towns, cities, mountains,
lakes, rivers,.. etc. ) in U.S.A. (484) and Canada (81) which derived
from Islamic and Arabic roots. These places were originally named by the
natives in precolumbian periods. Some of these names carried holy
meanings such as: Mecca-720 inhabitants (Indiana), Makkah Indian tribe
(Washington), Medina-2100 (Idaho), Medina-8500 (N.Y.), Medina-1100,
Hazen-5000 (North Dakota), Medina-17000/Medina-120000 (Ohio),
Medina-1100 (Tennessee), Medina-26000 (Texas), Medina-1200 (Ontario),
Mahomet-3200 (Illinois), Mona-1000 (Utah), Arva-700 (Ontario)...etc. A
careful study of the names of the native Indian tribes revealed that many
 names are derived from Arab and Islamic roots and origins, i.e. Anasazi,
Apache, Arawak, Arikana, Chavin, Cherokee, Cree, Hohokam, Hupa, Hopi,
 Makkah, Mahigan, Mohawk, Nazca, Zulu, Zuni...etc..

Based on the above historical, geographical and linguistic notes, a
call to celebrate the millennium of the Muslim arrival to the Americas, five
centuries before Columbus, has been issued to all Muslim nations and
communities around the world. We hope that this call will receive
complete understanding and attract enough support.


FOOTNOTES:
(1)See ref 4  
(2)See ref. 9  
(3)See ref. 3  
(4)See ref. 1, 2 and 5   
(5)See ref. 6  
(6)See ref. 14  
(7)See ref. 21 and 22  
(8)See ref. 15   
(9)See ref. 4  
(10)See ref. 15  
(11)See ref. 15  
(12)See ref. 6   
(13)See ref. 20  
(14)See ref. 16  
(15)See ref. 7  
(16)See ref. 10 &12
REFERENCES:
1. AGHA HAKIM, AL-MIRZA Riyaadh Al-Ulama(Arabic),Vol.2 P.386/Vol.4
P.175   
2. AL-AMEEN, SAYED MOHSIN Aayan Ash-Shia(Arabic),Vol.7 P.158/Vol 8
P.302-3  
3. AL-IDRISSI Nuzhat Al-Mushtaq fi Ikhtiraq Al-Afaaq(Arabic)   
4. AL-MASUDI Muruj Adh-Dhahab (Arabic), Vol. 1, P. 138  
5. AL-ASFAHANI, AR-RAGHIB Adharea Ila Makarim Ash-Shia,Vol.16,P.343   
6. CAUVET, GILES Les Berbers de L'Amerique,Paris 1912,P.100-101  
7. COLUMBUS, FERDINAND The Life of Admiral Christopher Columbus,Rutgers
Univ.Press, 1959, P.232  
8. DAVIES, NIGEL Voyagers to the New World,New York 1979  
9. ON MANUEL OSUNAY SAVINON Resumen de la Geografia Fisica...,Santa
Cruz
de Tenerife, 1844  
10. FELL,BARRY Saga America, New York 1980   
11. FELL,BARRY America BC, New York 1976  
12. GORDON,CYRUS Before Columbus,New York 1971  
13. GYR,DONALD Exploring Rock Art,Santa Barbara 1989   
14. HUYGHE,PATRICK Columbus was Last,New York 1992  
15. OBREGON ,MAURICIO The Columbus Papers,The Barcelona Letter of 1493,
The Landfall Controversy, and the Indian Guides, McMillan Co.,New York
1991   
16. THACHER,JOHN BOYD Christopher Columbus,New York 1950,P.380  
17. VAN SETIMA,IVAN African Presence in Early America,New Brunswick,NJ
1987  
18. VAN SETIMA,IVAN They Came Before Columbus,New York 1976  
19. VON WUTHENAU,ALEX Unexpected Facts in Ancient America,New York 1975   
20. WEINER,LEO Africa and the Discovery of America,Philadelphia,
1920,Vol.2 P.365-6  
21. WILKINS,H..T. Mysteries of Ancient South America,New York 1974   
22. WINTERS,CLYDE AHMAD Islam in Early North and South
America,Al-Ittihad,July 1977,P.60

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 FYI

                                                 http://melanet.com/clegg_series/hoax.html



With the contributions of individuals such as Zaryab.  Spain flourished.  But amidst the beauty and
wealth, a socio-political plague was spreading: "Jews who had ... been slaves now began trading
in slaves."  
According to T.B. Irving, between the years of 786 and 1009, "Franks and Jews traded Slavs and
Germans who had been taken prisoner ... on the Frankish territories.  Thus "slav" and "slave"
became interchangeable [terms] ... They  [the Franks and Jews ] made young boys into eunuchs
at Verdan ...

The slaves were driven from France to Spain in great herds like cattle.  When they reached
their destination, the men were purchased as servants or laborers, the women as household
 help or concubines ...

Many women were also imported from Galacia, for their blonde appearance attracted the
 Arab gentlemen.  Slaves were also traded from out the Adriatic.  These captives too were
Slavs, and their merchants chiefly Christians."

This slave trade changed the racial mix in Al-Andulus (Spain)...
The use of European women as concubines gradually lightened the complexion of Moorish Spain ...
 "Through these various processes [Moorish,Black African] Spain became more Caucasian in
 "blood" than is generally realized...

 It was always blond women, weather Slavs, Germans ,or Galicians, who were in special demand".
 This practice was not exclusive to Spain; W.E.B. DuBois notes that during the16th century "the Mohammedan rulers of Egypt were buying white slaves by the tens of thousands in Europeans
Asia and bringing them to Syria, Palestine and the Valley of the Nile." White slavery became wide
spread in Spain, Africa and the Mediterranean.

The Polygamous family structure common to many African cultures expedited the process of amalgamation and the consequences wrought havoc upon the inhabitants of Al-Andulus.]
+++++++++++++++++
Dr. Ivan Van Sertima ... Dr. Ivan Van Sertima's Reply to Criticism. Webpage design: Kenneth Ritchards
 Copyright © 1998 Kenneth Ritchards. All rights reserved. Revised: April 24, 2003...
[ More results from www.cwo.com ]


Heartfield versus Hitler
 From the cover of John Willett's book about John Heartfield


Hitler was no surprise
Willett's book Heartfield versus Hitler is an absolute refutation to the many who attempted to excuse their tolerance and/or support of Hitler's rise to power with the disingenuous claim:  "We did not know."

As Heartfield's images from the 1930s make clear, Hitler's character and intentions were far from secret.
 See also the work of American journalist George Seldes
who like Heartfield not only predicted the consequences
of the Third Reich, but also documented the multifaceted support Hitler received from business interests both in the United States and Germany.

Other books about John Heartfield's life and work Other sources
on major financial and institutional support from Hitler from the United States.

        here it is  Date: 18 Oct 2001 00:11:20 -0700 From:
  Cary Fisher sent these Links
    http://www.philipkdick.com/main.htm                 
   http://ufocommunity.com/                
somewhere in the the ufo community site is a link to steve neil's site .
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~    _________________________________________________________________
SCIENCE NEWS ONLINE  
The Best of SCIENCE NEWS April 29, 1995

ANTHROPOLOGY AND ARCHAEOLOGY
African finds revise cultural roots
By BRUCE BOWER

New evidence indicates that people living in Africa 90,000 years ago carved barbed bone points to
spear fish and even organized annual fishing expeditions.

 This discovery challenges the widely accepted theory that the complex thinking and
behavior necessary for major cultural changes arose in Europe no earlier than 35,000
years ago.

"What's exciting is that we're seeing strategic planning for subsistence by people who lived so long
 ago," says Alison S. Brooks, an archaeologist at George Washington University in Washington, D.C.
 "Humans in Africa invented sophisticated [tool] technologies long before their European counterparts,
 who have often been credited with initiating modern culture." Brooks and John E. Yellen, an
archaeologist at the National Science Foundation in Arlington, Va., directed excavations between1986
 and 1990 at a location in eastern Zaire called Katanda.

 Work there yielded eight barbed bone points, three unbarbed bone points, and a dagger-shaped
 bone, Brooks and her colleagues report in the April 28 Science.

These artifacts were made by grinding a rib or limb bone from a large mammal on a stone anvil
 or with a stone grinder, the researchers hold.

Prehistoric Katanda toolmakers cut a row of three-edged barbs on one side of a bone point and
carved rings around the base so that it could be fastened to a wooden shaft. Comparable bone
 implements in Europe date only to 14,000 years ago, Brooks says.

Excavations also unearthed the bones of many animals. Remains of large catfish turned up in
 particular abundance. These fish spawn in shallow water during the rainy season, which is
probably when the Katanda people made visits to the area, armed with bone-tipped spears,
 Brooks argues.

Clusters of artifacts and animal bones at Katanda resemble the debris produced by modern
hunter-gatherer families living in the same area, she notes. Current residents still fish, although
they now use boats. At other archaeological sites, evidence for organized fishing extends back
no earlier than 20,000 years  ago. Brooks and her colleagues assign an age of at least 89,000
years to the Katanda finds,  based on analyses of uranium content and breakdown in several
mammal teeth and measurements of the stored radiation dose in quartz sand just above the artifacts.
"This is a highly significant discovery," asserts Jack W. K. Harris, an archaeologist at Rutgers
 University in New Brunswick, N.J., who directs an Ethiopian excavation (SN: 4/15/95, p.237).
 "Technologica innovations that gave people a reliable food source occurred much earlier than
we thought -- and in Africa rather than Europe." An early form of sedentary living may have emerged
at Katanda around 90,000 years ago, with settlements set up during annual periods of intense
fishing, Harris contends.
 Back to Editor's Picks Listing     HOME FEATURES SHOP FEEDBACK SEARCH!
SCIENCE NEWS copyright 1996 Science Service, Inc. http://www.sciencenews.org/sn_edpik/aa_2.htm
(2 of 2) [09/06/2001 5:35:14 PM]
________________________________________________________________
BLACK HEBREW ISRAELITES


Black Hebrews?

The very words cause many people to grin at what appears to be simply a play on
words. No one reads about such people in European authored history books and
there are only a few references to "Ethiopian Jews" in white Jewish sources.
Yet Black Hebrews have existed since biblical times. In fact, they are the original
or proto-typical Hebrews.

Their story begins with the Patriarch Abraham (2117-1942 B.C.), a native of the
Sumerian city of Ur in ancient Mesopotamia.  [present day Iraq Ed.]

 Archaeological discoveries have proven that the earliest inhabitants of southern
Mesopotamia were members of the "Brown Race," i.e., the Negroid branch of
 humanity.

It has been confirmed that the ancient Sumerians were akin to the modern Black
Dravidians of India.

 The Sumerians also had an affinity with a people known as the Elamites, the very
 first Semitic group mentioned in the Bible (Gen. 10:22). The Elamites were a black-
skinned and woolly-haired people as the colorful glazed artwork on the royal palace
 walls of the ancient Persian city of Susa clearly show.

Thus Abraham, the native of Sumeria and the founding father of
the Israelite nation, was a black man.

The black racial origins of the Patriarchs is not based on mere
 conjecture, it is in complete agreement with the picture one gets
 from examining the identity of the earliest inhabitants of southern
Mesopotamia.

This truth is grossly neglected, suppressed, and distorted in most European
 and American historical texts which are flavored with race prejudice.

Fortunately, however, there are enough well authored and highly researched works
by Black historians that challenge the Eurocentric revisions of history and correct
 the various erroneous views regarding the ethnic identity of the Hebrews.

Biblical history relates that the descendants of Abraham, namely Jacob (Israel) and
his twelve sons and their wives, 70 in all, migrated from Canaan to Egypt around the
year 1827 B.C. During their sojourn in Egypt the Children of Israel multiplied from
being a family of 70 souls to a nation of over 3 million people at the time of the
Exodus which took place in 1612 B.C.

This astounding number of people in so short a time can only be adequately
explained by intermarriage between the family of Jacob and the native Egyptian
 populace.

 It is an established fact that the ancient Egyptians were a black African
 people. Thus, even if the Hebrews were not black before they arrived in
 Egypt, which is unlikely given Abraham's background, they were definitely
 black by the time they left Egypt under Moses

The biblical Hebrews were indistinguishable from native Egyptians and Ethiopians.
The Bible is full of examples which demonstrates this, and even ancient secular
historians remarked of the physical appearances of the Hebrews. The historian
Tacitus, for example, stated that it was a common opinion among the Romans that
the Jews "were an Ethiopian race." In Roman times Palestinian Israelites were
classed among Black Africans because it was almost impossible to tell them apart.

Hence, the Eurocentric notion of the Black
Hebrew as a kind of Johnnie-come-lately
in Hebraic history does not accord with the
 facts.

On the contrary, the historical record is abundantly
 clear that the majority of white European Jewry are
 not Hebrews in the biological sense but are actually
 the descendants of converts to Judaism during
Greco-Roman and Mediaeval times.

Professor Roland B. Dixon  states emphatically that: "The great majority of all
Jews [Ashkenazi] to-day are 'Semites' only in speech, and their true ancestry goes
back not so much to Palestine and Arabia as to the uplands of Anatolia and Armenia,
 the Caucasus and the steppes of Central Asia, and their nearest relatives are still to
 be found in these areas to-day" (Racial History Of Man, p. 175).

Caucasian Jews are not the lineal descendants of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.
Nor do they constitute a separate race but rather a religious fraternity which
adheres to the ethnic tradition of a people whose origins are inextricably linked
 to Black Africa.

But if the original Hebrews were black where are their descendants in the world
today? Are all black people Hebrews? The answer to the latter question is obviously
no. The Israelites were only one of several black people existing in ancient the ancient
world. Nevertheless, it is certain that the ancient Hebrews customs and practices
who's legacy orginated in Africa, were adopted by that of white Jews in Europe. Very
little is heard about the hundreds of thousands of Black Hebrews living in various
parts of the world such as Africa, Asia, India, Arabia, the Caribbean islands, South
America, and North America.

The history of Black Hebrews in North America is perhaps one of the
most important chapters in US history which has yet to be fully written.

 The ancestors of African Americans came from West Africa during the
 era of slavery. That particular region of Africa was once home to a number
 of Black Hebrew tribes that migrated from North and East Africa over
many centuries.
 In speaking of these migrations, Dr. Yoseph A. A.
ben-Yochannan writes that: "In North Africa, just before the period of Christianity's legal entry into Rome - due to Constantine "the Great" conversion
 in the 4th century - there were many Hebrew (Jewish)
 'tribes' that are of indigenous African (the so-called 'Negroes') origin.
An Overlooked Color In a Medici Portrait?
Girl's History Raises Questions About Art Studies
By Darryl Fears
Washington Post Staff Writer
Sunday, November 25, 2001; Page A03
She looks like an ordinary little girl, holding the hand of an ordinary woman. But the 16th-century painting of young Giulia de' Medici with her aunt on display at the National Gallery of Art, is now considered to be the first European portrait to capture a girl of African descent.
How the granddaughter of a slave came to be painted with a member of one of the richest and most powerful families in Italian history -- and painted out many years later -- reads like a script from "Dynasty" and sheds light on a little-studied period of African-European relations.
The girl's identity was uncovered not by scholars in Europe or the United States, but by aCanadian scholar who received vital help from an independent art researcher.
The reason for the oversight, the researcher said, is that the nation's overwhelmingly white art institution directors and curators have shown little interest in studying the presence of Africans in European works of art.
"Situations like this come to the fore and are not exploited," said Mario Valdes, the researcher who helped Gabrielle Langdon identify Giulia. "The importance [of the painting] to me is that it says to the black community that we've had extremely powerful people in European history already, and very powerful families descend from them to this day. And that upsets the whole racial order as we've known it."
Giulia de' Medici was the daughter of Alessandro de' Medici, the first
duke of Florence. Historians say Alessandro, whose mother is identified
as Simunetta, a black slave from Northern Africa, was the son of Giulio
de' Medici, who became a cardinal and then Pope Clement VII.
[Pope Clement VII
The first 7 popes were African according to a  Skira Book on  the Vatican I got as an engagement present.  ED]
[The Europeans over the past tend to Pinocchio or Michel Jackson
or just plain bleach any one black they feel was important or powerful in
 human history. See if you can find a roman portrait of Hannibal as an African, which he was. I made the "doctored" picture in the center as a
 spoof on the tenancy of  White Washing " and erasing or obfuscating
"black achievement. That is extra true of Americans even on a personal
level they tend to rapidly search for a white to compare to any one of
color that demonstrates higher abilities. I am tired of this habit and thus
correct it when ever I encounter it... ED]


Last month Valdes, who wrote on the Medici family for the Web site of "Frontline," a public broadcasting public affairs program, launched an e-mail campaign to get the National Gallery to mention Giulia's ancestry prominently in the public relations material for "Virtue & Beauty," the exhibition that includes the painting. In an Oct. 6 e-mail to Faya Causey, head of academic programs at the gallery, Valdes said he was "appalled to see how the black content of this exhibition has been so effectively segregated from the rest of the Gallery's PR on it."
Valdes was too impatient, said Deborah Ziska, a spokeswoman for the gallery. Curators and academics there had planned to fulfill his wishes even before he made them known. On Oct. 26, the gallery ran a newspaper advertisement with the portrait front and center, titled "The First Portrait of a Girl of African Descent in European Art."


These African Jews, as all other Romanized-African of this era, were caught in a
rebellion in Cyrene (Cyrenaica) during 115 C.E. against Roman imperialism and
colonialism. This rebellion also marked the beginning of a mass Jewish migration
southward into Soudan (Sudan or West Africa) along the way of the city Aer (Air)
and into the countries of Futa Jalon and Senegal (Sene-Gambia) which lie below the
parabolic curve of the Niger River's most northern reaches, where the City of Tumbut
(Timbuktu, Timbuctoo, etc.), Melle (Mali) presently stands." ("African Origins of the
Major Western Religions," 1970, p. 76).

Dr. Ben goes on to relate that Black Israelite immigrants from northern and eastern
Africa merged with indigenous groups in western Africa to become the Fulani of Futa
Jalon, Bornu, Kamen, and Lake Chad. They also formed the parent-stock of groups
such as the Ashanti, the Hausa, the B'nai Ephraim (mentioned in earlier posts), and
the Bavumbu (Mavumbu or Ma-yomba). All of these groups suffered tremendous
population decreases during the years the Atlantic slave trade was in operation,
others were completely eliminated.

Thus, every so-called African American has Israelite ancestry in their family tree
whether he or she knows it or not. Even in the very crucible of slavery the
descendants of West African Hebrew captives in America struggled to keep their
heritages from being obliterated by forced assimilation and acculturation. Their
distinctive traditions became submerged in Christianity but always remained a part of
the oral tradition via the so-called Negro Spirituals which praise the memory of
ancestors and kinsmen like Moses, David, Joshua, and Daniel.

Since the African-American conviction of having Israelite ancestry antedates the Civil
War it is not surprising that the earliest Black Hebrew congregation to be established
in North America was founded in the 1880s in Chattanooga, Tennessee by F. S.
Cherry (the group later moved to Philadelphia). Cherry was a railroad worker and
seaman who was fluent in both Yiddish and Hebrew. He adamantly preached that
so-called American Negroes are really the lost sheep of the House of Israel whose
true legacy was stolen from them during slavery. He urged his hearers to investigate
their history in order to rediscover this truth and reclaim their heritage.

In 1896, a man by the name of William S. Crowdy established another Hebrew
congregation in Lawrence, Kansas. In 1899, Leon Richlieu established the Moorish
Zionist Temple in Brooklyn. To date there are literally hundreds of uncharted Black
Hebrew congregations in North America. They do not exist because of an aversion
 for mainstream American Protestantism or an attraction to white Jewish culture. As
stated earlier, Black Hebrews have always been in the world; and they repudiate the
notion that they are usurpers of the heritage of white Jews.

The great proliferation of Black Hebrew groups occurred after World War I during
the Great Migration of Blacks from rural areas in the South to urban centers in the
North. There were at least nine Black Hebrew congregations in New York in the early
1900s, one of which was founded by a West Indian named Arnold Josiah Ford called
"Beth B'nai Abraham Congregation." In 1918, another West Indian born Israelite
named Wentworth Arthur Matthews founded the "Commandment Keepers," and
emerged as one of the leading Black Israelite rabbis in Harlem. Born in 1892 of
African Hebraic parentage in Lagos, West Africa, Matthews moved with his family
 to St. Kitts in the West Indies before coming to America in 1911.

Branches of the "Commandment Keepers" exist in many American cities such as
Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Cincinnati, Chicago, Ohio, Virginia, and New
Jersey. In 1965, the "House of Judah" was founded by William Lewis in Wetumpka,
Alabama. The group later purchased a twenty-acre tract near Grand Junction,
Michigan where they practice a communal life-style. Black Hebrews feel that by
reclaiming their Israelite identity they have also recovered an important part of their
ancestral heritage. They hold to the conviction that their "Hebrewness" is directly
traceable to their African forebears of Israelite extraction who were brought to this
country during slavery. They are cognizant and proud of their non-Hebrew African
heritages but like many other people with mixed backgrounds they opt to give certain
of their forebears a more pronounced place in their identity.

Black Israelite groups in America are decentralized and varied in ideology.Unlike
white Orthodox Jews, Black Hebrews reject the Talmud, a collection of commentaries,
as being on a par with the Bible and so they do not conform to rabbinical judgments
which emphasize the need of conversion to Talmudism in order to be considered
"truly" Jewish.

Since the Bible recognizes patrilineal as well as matrilineal descent, Black Hebrews
(like Reform Jews) do not place any special significance on having a "Jewish" mother
as do Orthodox Jews. Another major reason why the Talmud is rejected is due to its
role in creating the so-called Hamitic Myth which is the doctrine that teaches that all
black-skinned people are the cursed descendants of Ham in the Bible.

It was the promulgation of this erroneous myth, passing under the guise of "Jewish"
talmudic scholarship, which provided the moral pretext for European slavery of
Africans. The Talmud was not the product of ethnic Hebrews but of proselytized
Babylonian sages who worked on editing it from the 3rd to in the 6th century A.D.
It should not be used as the litmus test on Hebrew identity, particularly since it was
of men who were clearly prejudice of Blacks, Israelites or otherwise.

A major dilemma facing many Black Hebrews who wish to settle in Israel has to do
with the Talmud and the fact that conversion is a mandatory prerequisite for gaining
Israeli citizenship. The Black Jews from Ethiopian were not allowed to immigrate to
Israel until they agreed to undergo a ceremonial conversion to white Judaism (which
was tantamount to a denial of their own Hebrewness) and embrace the Talmud.
However, many Ethiopian Jews, particular in the aftermath of the recent blood
scandal in Israel, are seriously rethinking their decision to adopt the Talmud
because it has not given them equal status with other white Israelis.

Ethiopians Jews occupy the bottom rung of Israeli society today because they are
black and are not considered "true" Hebrews because of their blackness. American
Black Hebrews wanting to join their Ethiopian brethren feel that the Israeli Law of
Return is unjust because it forces recognition of a racist text (the Talmud) in order
to be considered eligible for citizenship It is truly ironic that the descendants of the
original Hebrews are not considered to be Hebrews even in their own land because
they happen to look like their distant forebears.
MAY 1999
 
From:   "SaraLou Pedigo" <slpedigo@p...>
                Date:  Wed Jun 11, 2003  3:18 am
                Subject:  Re: [Messianic_Apologetic] Black Jews

                Seems to me that if one of the Apostolic outposts
                was Alexandria, there' d be black Jews in the first
                century.  Tradition has it that the Queen of Sheba
                was black and beget Hebrews.  By black do you
                mean hermetic or shemetic or japhetic?  Do you
                mean african or indian or what do you mean?
                Non-caucasian?  What color were the people who left
                the near-flood age Hebrew coins in Tennessee?
                SaraLou
                .  

 ----- Original Message -----
Sent: Monday, June 09, 2003 11:36 PM
Subject: [Messianic_Apologetic] Black Jews

Hey guys,
 I just received an article from some group I don't
remember joining, that claims that Abraham
was black. I want to get your thoughts on
the article. I have my own thoughts on it
but I will wait until after this thread gets
going before I go on further.

Thanks and God bless, Oodah



                         Did you know there are Jewish
                     communities all over Africa?Western Jews
                     do not always imagine that people of
                     different skin colors and from distant
                     cultures could be Jewish, but the truth is
                     that there are currently indigenous
                     communities observing traditional Jewish
                     rituals all over the continent of Africa.
                     True, most Jewish communities in Africa
                     bear little resemblance to Jewish
                     communities in Europe or North America
                     â they look different, speak different
                     languages, embrace music and culture with
                     which many Western Jews are unfamiliar
                     â yet these communities have religious
                     practices that everyone who is Jewish
                     would recognize. Each community that
                     practices Judaism in Africa has come to the
                     religion in a different way. Some believe
                     themselves to be descendents of the "lost
                     Tribes of Israel," others are members of
                     communities that have been Jewish for two
                     millennia, while other groups have
                     accepted Judaism in recent years because
                     it is the religion that most resonates with
                     their lives. In the fall of 1999 journalist and
                     musician Jay Sand visited the Jewish
                     communities in Ghana and Uganda, and in
                     2000 he visited groups in Southern and
                     Northern Africa. The Jews of Africa
                     program will introduce you to the
                     fascinating, complex and often
                     eye-opening world of African Jewry
                     through his multifaceted, multimedia "Jews
                     of Africa" presentation.
                     BLACK HEBREW ISRAELITES(JEWS)
                     Black Hebrews?
                     The very words cause many people to grin
                     at what appears to be simply a play on
                     words. No one reads about such people in
                     european authored history books and there
                     are only a few references to "Ethiopian
                     Jews" in white Jewish sources. Yet Black
                     Hebrews have existed since biblical times.
                     In fact, they are the original or
                     proto-typical Hebrews.
                     Their story begins with the Patriarch
                     Abraham (2117-1942 B.C.), a native of the
                     Sumerian city of Ur in ancient
                     Mesopotamia. Archaeological discoveries
                     have proven that the earliest inhabitants of
                     southern Mesopotamia were members of
                     the "Brown Race," i.e., the Negroid branch
                     of humanity.

                     It has been confirmed that the ancient
                     Sumerians were akin to the modern Black
                     Dravidians of India. The Sumerians also
                     had an affinity with a people known as the
                     Elamites, the very first Semitic group
                     mentioned in the Bible (Gen. 10:22). The
                     Elamites were a black-skinned and
                     woolly-haired people as the colorful glazed
                     artwork on the royal palace walls of the
                     ancient Persian city of Susa clearly
                     show.Thus Abraham, the native of
                     Sumerian and the founding father of the
                     Israelite nation, was a black man. The black
                     racial origins of the Patriarchs is not based
                     on mere conjecture, it is in complete
                     agreement with the picture one gets from
                     examining the identity of the earliest
                     inhabitants of southern Mesopotamia.

                     This truth is grossly neglected,
                     suppressed, and distorted in most
                     European and American historical texts
                     which are flavored with race prejudice.
                     Fortunately, however, there are enough
                     well authored and highly researched works
                     by Black historians that challenge the
                     Eurocentric revisions of history and correct
                     the various erroneous views regarding the
                     ethnic identity of the Hebrews.

                     Biblical history relates that the
                     descendants of Abraham, namely Jacob
                     (Israel) and his twelve sons and their
                     wives, 70 in all, migrated from Canaan to
                     Egypt around the year 1827 B.C. During
                     their sojourn in Egypt the Children of Israel
                     multiplied from being a family of 70 souls to
                     a nation of over 3 million people at the time
                     of the Exodus which took place in 1612 B.C.

                     This astounding number of people in so
                     short a time can only be adequately
                     explained by intermarriage between the
                     family of Jacob and the native Egyptian
                     populace. It is an established fact that the
                     ancient Egyptians were a black African
                     people. Thus, even if the Hebrews were not
                     black before they arrived in Egypt, which is
                     unlikely given Abraham's background,
                     they were definitely black by the time they
                     left Egypt under Moses
                     The biblical Hebrews were
                     indistinguishable from native Egyptians
                     and Ethiopians. The Bible is full of
                     examples which demonstrates this, and
                     even ancient secular historians remarked of
                     the physical appearances of the Hebrews.
                     The historian Tacitus, for example, stated
                     that it was a common opinion among the
                     Romans that the Jews "were an Ethiopian
                     race." In Roman times PalestinianIsraelites
                     were classed among Black Africans
                     because it was almost impossible to tell
                     them apart.

                     Hence, the Eurocentric notion of the Black
                     Hebrew as a kind of Johnnie-come-lately in
                     Hebraic history does not accord with the
                     facts. On the contrary, the historical record
                     is abundantly clear that the majority of
                     white European Jewry are not Hebrews in
                     the biological sense but are actually the
                     descendants of converts to Judaism during
                     Greco-Roman and Mediaeval times.
                     Professor Roland B. Dixon states
                     emphatically that: "The great majority of all
                     Jews [Ashkenazi] to-day are 'Semites' only
                     in speech, and their true ancestry goes
                     back not so much to Palestine and Arabia
                     as to the uplands of Anatolia and Armenia,
                     the Caucasus and the steppes of Central
                     Asia, and their nearest relatives are still to
                     be found in these areas to-day" (Racial
                     History Of Man, p. 175).

                     But if the original Hebrews were black
                     where are their descendants in the world
                     today? Are all black people Hebrews? The
                     answer to the latter question is obviously
                     no. The Israelites were only one of several
                     black people existing in ancient the ancient
                     world. Nevertheless, it is certain that the
                     ancient Hebrews customs and practices
                     who's legacy orginated in Africa, were
                     adopted by that of white Jews in Europe.
                     Very little is heard about the hundreds of
                     thousands of Black Hebrews living in
                     various parts of the world such as Africa,
                     Asia, India, Arabia, the Caribbean islands,
                     South America, and North America.

                     The history of Black Hebrews in North
                     America is perhaps one of the most
                     important chapters in US history which has
                     yet to be fully written. The ancestors of
                     African Americans came from West Africa
                     during the era of slavery. That particular
                     region of Africa was once home to a
                     number of Black Hebrew tribes that
                     migrated from North and East Africa over
                     many centuries. In speaking of these
                     migrations, Dr. Yoseph A. A.
                     ben-Yochannan
The Separatist Roots of Israel
People of the book, Gods beloved, the chosen people, these are a few of the
terms used when talking about the Nation of Israel.

 The last two terms which are Gods beloved and the chosen people imply that
this nation and these people have a special position within the hierarchy of a
divine creator and that simple notion creates a form of separation between
them and other nations.
The purpose of this paper will be to discuss the separatist roots of the nation
 known as Israel and the effect this separatism has had on their past and present
history. But before I begin, I want to give you the definition of a few words you may
see a lot of.Elitism-Leadership or rule by the elite-the selectivity of the elite
associated with snobbery

Fanaticism-Excessive enthusiasm, unreasoning zeal, or wild and extravagant
 notions on any subject especially religion Separatism-A belief in, a movement
for, or state of seperation (as schism, secession, or segregation)

The history of ancient Israel is a favorite topic of religious people in general and
 christians in particular. Their history is full of drama and intrigue; it has all the
necessary qualities for a good novel or a good movie.
But most people only pay attention to these surface details, if you study their
 history from a neutral perspective, you will find separatism and elitism sprinkled
 everywhere.

The history of Israel started with a guy named Abram who had a vision from
 his god telling him to leave his country, his family, and his father's house for a
country,which God shall show him, in a vision God also made a promise to
Abram, which went as follows "I shall make you a great nation, I shall bless
you and make your name great."
That one vision started the nation you now know as Israel and it reeks of
separatism.

Thinking that you are Gods elite race can lead to many problems as we have
 seen by studying the history of this nation. Abram left his country, which was
called Ur; this nation was located in what  is known today as Saudi Arabia. He
left his homeland for the land known as Canaan which was located from the
north of Lebanon through modern day Israel to the border of Egypt,  the elitist
attitude that Abram and descendants took eventually caused the deaths of the
 people of Canaan.

Because Abram and his people were supposedly promised that land by their
creator, this type of thinking by Abram shows that organized religion despite its
peaceful rhetoric eventually will lead to violence.

The Israelites eventually possessed the land of the canaanites not by peace
but by force however, if you stop and meditate on it, they possessed the land
not by divine will but by violence, which gives them another title to go along
 with separatist nation title, and this other title is religious fanatic.

 In the history of religious fanaticism, unthinkable things were done and insane
 acts were justified...Why?

 Because of their religion and their belief that they were the chosen ones
 of God, the nation Israel is no different from any other fanatical nation or
movement in history except for the fact that they are good at covering their
tracks and they are proficient at propaganda.

Now we will look at the current state of Israel A number of people think that
the Israel of today was reborn in one grand instantaneous moment in 1948,
 but that's a lie and I will give you a few details.

 Since the first century AD when their nation was destroyed by the Romans,
 the Jews have felt like loners and wanderers and what Hitler did increased
 this feeling ten fold, Hitler's extermination of a few million Jews increased
 their longing for a homeland and in 1948 they officially got what they longed
 for, but before 1948 between 1930 and 1947 the Zionists (Zionists
are considered the religious extremists among Jews) not only bought land
from local Palestinians they also took land and killed the Palestinians for
that land after some covert movements among the Zionists and with the
 support of bigger western countries, they created a declaration of
independence and the nation of Israel was reborn and in the process they
repeated history just like their ancestor Abram who later became known as
 Abraham and their other ancestors they went into a land that was not theirs,
 took the land by force and killed most of the people in that land.

In addition, they did this because they think that they have a right to the land
because of texts that proclaim them as the chosen people of God and that
 land as a gift from God, this is separatism, elitism, and fanaticism rolled into
one package and they got away with it because a lot of people buy into their
religious dogma and they think its justified because of what happened to
 their relatives and family in nazi Germany

One nation that believes in Israel and has supported them in the past is the
United States of America You would think that our supposedly freedom loving
 nation would condemn the separatist nation disguised as a democracy better
 known to the people at large as the state of Israel However, the USA continued
to support Israel well into the 1990s...Why?

This why can be answered in two ways.

The first way is answered this way, birds of a feather flock together and the
second way is the fact that the United States of America has similar roots.

The USA was founded by what could be considered religious fanatics who
killed the indigenous people, took their lands and enslaved people.

The founders of this country wanted nothing to do with Britain, France or any
 other country, they wanted their own special land, a land flowing with milk and
honey...

Add to that the fact that they thought their own race was above all other races
on earth.  It seems like we're talking about Israel again but I'm describing the
United States of America But let's get back to Israel for a moment
This so-called democratic country has a law that should make them look bad
to the world but instead they're viewed as the underdogs who never give up.
This law states that unless you have a Jewish parent you cannot immigrate
to Israel. This law can lead to different conclusions by different people but the
 conclusion that most people should have is separatism This law states loud
and clear that they only want their own race to live in Israel. Why do they only
 want Jews to live in Israel?

Because they consider their own race to be above everyone other race Why
 do they consider their own race to be above other races?

Because their [clamed] ancestor Abraham had a vision saying that he would
 be the father of a great nation and that his seed would be the chosen people
of God. And that says to me that this nation Israel was built on separatism
and religious fanaticism just like its biggest supporter the United States of
 America.

In concluding, I would like to say that I think that separatism and fanaticism
 go hand in hand.
 In many cases you cannot have one without the other and by observing
the USA and the state of Israel you can come to the conclusion that
separatism and fanaticism are definitely intertwined, like most people
who become somewhat antisocial and elitist at the same time, these
nations think they can achieve greatness or at the very least a sense of
peace are deceiving themselves because not only are they separating
themselves from potential allies and friends, they are creating problems by
manufacturing a pseudo air of superiority around themselves and like all
nations that are full of themselves they will eventually fall to the wayside.

 This may seem somewhat extreme but I feel that in order for this world to
 be truly unified as one,all ideologies that cause consistent conflict must be
 pushed to the side or eliminated altogether.

All humans are basically the same underneath so why separate yourself
 from others by thinking you're better than you because of superficial things
such as skin color, religion, or political ideology. Israel is not the only nation
 in the world that's practicing separatism but in my eyes, it's the only nation
in the world that's not only getting away with it, they're making themselves
seem like the victims in the area known as the middle east.

The United States of America is not entirely free of these charges themselves
 because not more than 60 years ago they were doing the same thing.

Israel and the United States of America are guilty of thinking this way and
 thats because their roots are separatist dipped in a liquid solution consisting
of elitism and fanaticism. Separatist nations will hopefully one day be history
but who knows what the future holds, maybe that deity that gave Abram a vision...
I think not! The End
The Separatist Roots of Israel
http://www.angelfire.com/sd/occultic/israel.html

 Bibliography King James Holy bible

Webters online dictionary http://www.m-w.com/dictionary.html

                  ARTFL project Webster's revised 1913 unabridged dictionary

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
       +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
History of invention in the arts  Gregory Aharonian

                    INVENT- v.t. to originate or create as a product of one's own
                 ingenuity, experimentation or contrivance; to produce or
                 create with the imagination

This is meant to be a list of firsts (a key requirement to obtain a patent).If you know of earlier instances of the following examples, please email us.  
Science News of the Year: 2003 Week of Feb. 7, 2004; Vol. 165, No.

Researchers have developed a new way to turn nitrogen into ammonia that could improve upon an energy-intensive,
90-year-old method used to make fertilizers. more...

The Brain's Word Act: Reading verbs revs up motor cortex areas  A strip of brain tissue that regulates most voluntary
movements also respond vigorously as people do nothing more than silently read active verbs. more...

With computers becoming ever more powerful, researchers are simulating nanoscale materials and devices down to the
level of atoms and even electrons. more...

© 1998-2001 Mingus Dsigns


>From: "AWRRTC AWRRTC"
>To: awrrtc2@yahoogroups.com
>Subject: [awrrtc2] Landmark Reparations Lawsuit to Be Filed!
>Date: Tue, 06 Jan 2004 14:30:41 +0000
>
>From: Bob Brown
>Subject: Landmark Reparations Lawsuit to Be Filed!
>
>
>
>
>Pan-African Roots 1019 O Street NW
>Washington, DC 20001
>
>PRESS ADVISORY!
>
>For more information, please contact:
>Maurice Weaver
>773.750.0817 or paroots02@yahoo.com
>
>
>Landmark Reparations Lawsuit Will Be Filed in Chicago at the U.S. District
>Court on Wed., Jan. 7, 2004
>
>Vatican, Governments, Industries, Colleges Are Charged with Conspiracy and
>Crimes Against Humanity
>
>(Chicago --- Jan. 5, 2004) Bob Brown, co-director of Pan-African Roots, will
>file a private attorney general class action lawsuit on behalf of all
>descendants of enslaved Africans in Africa and the African Diaspora, who
>were and are victims of the MAAFA (from 1435 to 2003) i.e. the
>Trans-Atlantic slave trade, slavery, slave-like practices and conditions,
>colonialism, segregation and apartheid. Chicago-based and other entities
>that have not complied with the Chicago Slavery Era Disclosure Act passed by
>the Chicago City Council in October 2002 will be named in the lawsuit.
>
>WHO:
>Bob Brown, Plaintiff, is an organizer and researcher for 40 years in the
>student, human rights, Black Power, national liberation, Pan African, and
>peace movements
>
>Defendants include: The Vatican, the Society of Jesus and the Catholic
>Church worldwide; the United States, British, French and Spanish
>Governments; the Shipping, Gun, Sugar, Tobacco, Cotton and Textile, Mining;
>Banking, Insurance, and other Industries and Companies; and several Colleges
>and Universities.
>
>WHAT:
>The media is invited to attend Mr. Brown's press conference after he files
>his federal lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of
>Illinois. A written statement will be distributed , with Q&A.
>
>WHEN:
>10 AM, Wednesday, Jan 7, 2003.
>
>WHERE:
>United States District Court for the Northern District of Illinois
>219 South Dearborn
>Chicago, Illinois
>
>PHOTO OPPORTUNITY:
>Following the press conference, Organizers and Supporters of the Reparations
>Movement will be available for photos/interviews.
>
>According to Mr. Brown, "This lawsuit is only the tip of a massive storm
>that is yet to come! African People worldwide, demand remedy, relief,
>reparations and repatriation. Victory is inevitable!"
>
>PLEASE FORWARD THIS EMAIL!
>
>END!
>
>________ Sent To You by ___________
>NEWS, EVENTS, FORUMS and more..
>TheBlackList - "The New Negro World"
>Satisfying the African Need to Know
>
>_________________________________________________________________


"He who rest on his or her laurels wears them in the wrong place."
~Anon

" Lay down with Bears Expect some Hairs".
~Anon

"Work is worship"
~A Shaker saying

"Breath is prayer"
~A Sufi saying

"If you can think it, you can say it, if say it you do it.
~"Advice from the Marquis De-Sad

"Your Race is what good YOU achieve YOUR
 philosophy IS what you do (just) before you die."  Anon
Check out R4D
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RE: Subject coming soon :  http://TheGiganticHeartlessMultinationalCorporation.com/  Date:   Mon, 5 May 2003 17:37:59
And the winner
click this
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This may be the classic example of "subject object disorientation"
 with indeterminate  topical vectors, mixing metaphoric parameters
within temporal verses corporal time chucked in for good measure.
Ya Don't Say






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Primary stuff inspacepropulsion.com
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - View as HTML
Page 1. A photon sail is a spacecraft accelerated by
the momentum of the electromagnetic photons that
are reflected from it. Types ...

a


b
greg matloff

c

File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - View as HTML
Page 1. A photon sail is a spacecraft accelerated
 by the momentum of the electromagnetic photons
 that are reflected from it. Types ...
<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject:       - fwd, puzzling - Date:Wed, 07 Jan 2004 22:59:58 -0500- fwd, puzzling -
   Date:  Wed, 07 Jan 2004 22:59:58 -0500  From: L

     To:  (Recipient list suppressed)

............................................................
From:  Charles and Rocky --Do you have any opinion of this text?
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