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HistoryofJewishSlavery
This is not what we were thoughtfully told about Slavery in elementary school and all through high
school...White people were Slaves?!!  All of the images of slavery were of blacks,in books,songs,
movies that's why its impossible to explain that  two of  my Unkel's were fighter pilots during WW2
 black US Air force fighter pilots and "WE" not only like guns and red meat, tobacco and whiskey,
and you thought we just want comfortable shoes and a good job. Nope I want Black Fire Chiefs and
 mayors and Governors and even presidents of banks but not Governor (Poltrune) Pataki
he thinks an 8th. grade education is good enough for NYC kids. Think again you seffish putz!
Say what did your Grand pappy do during WW2 ED.
WHAT DID YOUR
 GRANDFATHER
DO DURING WW2
{What did your Presidents
Grandfather do during WW2?}

           
                   Like the Swiss banks, the American car companies have vigorously denied
                   that they assisted the Nazi war machine or that they significantly profited
                  from the use of forced labor at their German subsidiaries during World War II.
                  But historians and lawyers researching class-action suits on behalf of former
                  prisoners of war are busy amassing evidence of collaboration by the automakers
                  with the Nazi regime.

                  The issues at stake for the American automobile corporations go far
                  beyond the relatively modest sums involved in settling any lawsuit. During
                  the war, the car companies established a reputation for themselves as "the
                  arsenal of democracy" by transforming their production lines to make
                  airplanes, tanks and trucks for the armies that defeated Adolf Hitler. They
                  deny that their huge business interests in Nazi Germany led them, wittingly
                  or unwittingly, to also become "the arsenal of fascism."

                  The Ford Motor Co. has mobilized dozens of historians, lawyers and
                  researchers to fight a civil case brought by lawyers in Washington and
                  New York who specialize in extracting large cash settlements from banks
                  and insurance companies accused of defrauding Holocaust victims. Also,
                  a book scheduled for publication next year will accuse General Motors
                  Corp. of playing a key role in Hitler's invasions of Poland and the Soviet
                  Union.

                  "General Motors was far more important to the Nazi war machine than
                  Switzerland," said Bradford Snell, who has spent two decades researching
                  a history of the world's largest automaker. "Switzerland was just a
                  repository of looted funds. GM was an integral part of the German war
                  effort. The Nazis could have invaded Poland and Russia without
                  Switzerland. They could not have done so without GM."

                  Both General Motors and Ford insist that they bear little or no
                  responsibility for the operations of their German subsidiaries, which
                  controlled 70 percent of the German car market at the outbreak of war in
                  1939 and rapidly retooled themselves to become suppliers of war materiel
                  to the German army.

                  But documents discovered in German and American archives show a
                  much more complicated picture. In certain instances, American managers
                  of both GM and Ford went along with the conversion of their German
                  plants to military production at a time when U.S. government documents
                  show they were still resisting calls by the Roosevelt administration to step
                  up military production in their plants at home.

After three years of national soul-searching, Switzerland's largest banks
agreed last August to make a $1.25 billion settlement to Holocaust
survivors, a step they had initially resisted. Far from dying down, however,
the controversy over business dealings with the Nazis has given new
impetus to long-standing investigations into issues such as looted art,
unpaid insurance benefits and the use of forced labor at German factories.

                  Although some of the allegations against GM and Ford surfaced during
                  1974 congressional hearings into monopolistic practices in the automobile
                  industry, American corporations have largely succeeded in playing down
                  their connections to Nazi Germany. As with Switzerland, however, their
                  very success in projecting a wholesome, patriotic image of themselves is
                  now being turned against them by their critics.

"When you think of Ford, you think of
baseball and apple pie," said Miriam
Kleinman, a researcher with the Washington
 law firm of Cohen, Millstein and Hausfeld,
who spent weeks examining records at the
 National Archives in an attempt to build a
slave labor case against the Dearborn- based
 company.

"You don't think of Hitler having a portrait
of Henry Ford on his office wall in Munich."
flinet.com/~politics/antisemi/internat_jew.html

http://www.stormfront.org/whitehistory/

[This Guy is a wanna be king of the current propertied master race web sites like a many headed hydra
 one ass hole behind it a bankrupted bitter looser dreaming all of china will die so whites can be boss
 man again alas the inter net has a multitude for multitude  mirrors and smoke you be the judge, but
 when you find your future  be sure  its not "All about the out side alone." R@wman]

If you will not fight for your rights when you can easily win without bloodshed -- if you will not fight when your victory will be sure and not too costly -- then you may come to the moment when you will have to fight with all the odds against you and only a small chance of survival. There may even be a worse case: you may have to fight when there is no hope of victory, because it is better to perish than to live as slaves. --Winston Churchill
[This stuff cuts both ways doesn't it, this WC quote was on the SF web Ironic Tuche. ED]
 Check out the evolution of his venture   http://web.archive.org/web/*/http://www.stormfront.org/whitehistory/
Read more   http://www.google.com/search?q=MARCH+OF+THE+TITANS:&hl=en&lr=&ie=UTF-8&safe=off&start=180&sa=N
Google
click to link to google http://www.google.com/services/websearch.html       You might like to try this tool
This thing really works!

 http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/national/daily/nov98/nazicars30.htm

This web site STOCK MAVEN has everything on the topic, The history of Jewish slavery.
 as there was no other web-sit that I could find I post some excerpts. But the real reason is
because they were The Slaves in my life time and never talk about it but teach American urban
youth the Corrosive Psych history of 100 years ago ( The Civil war, America's Race Hate
documented in films were of KKK attacking blacks producing funds to combat "racism" and
build Israel etc.) and have moved along to the future, history to the nation of Israel while not
many urban Americans ever become landlords because the have been miss focused by the "
education establishment  on old time  religion of white man hates you so hate white .
Zero Mostell actually made a film laughing at the Holocaust less than 50 years after now that's
focus action camera. That guy was a real genius  while Einstein's wife helped him with his
 math Zero was dancing telling every on dance into a new day "forget never" but be of good
cheer "NOW" don't Lament the  past. "Funny ID Money. " -- Carl Gross

This web site STOCK MAVEN has everything on the topic except the blacks of Europe.
Business and the Holocaust

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
"Beyond-the-pale"
Refers to a province in Russia where Jews were
 forced to live duing the 18th and 19 centuries.
called "The Pale of Settlement"
Political Anti-Semitism Anti-Semitism from the left...
Poster for Adolf Willette...Adolf Stoecker...The first
copy of the anti-Semitic newspaper...In 1886, the
French writer Edouard Drumont...Karl Lueger...
more and more.
------------------------------------------
PREJUDICES AGAINST OTHER CULTURES and people have existed for a long
 time and continue to exist. They are mostly based on ignorance. Some prejudices are
innocent, but others are vicious. They can lead  to oppression and persecution.
 Few groups in history have encountered more prejudice than the Jews. In Europe, the
hatred of Jews has its origins in Christianity, a religion rooted in Judaism. Forcenturies,
the Jews were the only religious minority in Christian Europe, often misunderstood and
eyed with suspicion by the population, suppressed by the Church and exploited by the
rulers. Religious intolerance led to discrimination and isolation. A climate developed in
which many legends and myths about Jews and Judaism seemed credible. Some are
still believed today. But despite of persecution and discrimination, Jewish communities
 kept their religious, their social and cultural traditions alive.

This exhibition depicts the history of anti-Jewish attitudes -- and of anti-Semitism today,
a form of intolerance that in our century caused the death of millions of people. The
exhibition also portrays the history of Jews in Europe and in Russia to help understand
their life, religion and culture. But above all, the exhibition wants to warn of the great
dangers of prejudice and  intolerance, particularly in times of political uncertainty and
increased social tension.    E N T E R   T H E   E X H I B I T


http://free.freespeech.org/americanstateterrorism/AmericanStateTerrorism.html
We know this group as flag defacing flag burning
nut balls !!   BUT what if it is true?
"Thanks to the September 11  A “Reichstag fire”, the state terrorists of
the U.S. military and government can now affect public postures of patriotic
 defense. Immediately after 9-11 they began speaking of America as
 “the Homeland”, just as the Nazis spoke of “the Fatherland”. "      

Money! Money! Money! Money! Money! Money! Money! Money! Money! Money! Money! Money! Money! Money! Money!
Take a look for yourself at http://www.whitehouse.gov/nsc/nss.html.
9-11: America?s ?Reichstag Fire?  Wild Card

  WHAT DID YOUR GRANDFATHER DO DURING WW2
{What did your Presidents Grandfather do during WW2?}

The Jewish Press -
"Time To Leave The 1920's Behind Us"
 
 by Yosef Cohen
 The Jewish people were silent during the early 1920's when anti-Semitism
 was spawned by Henry Ford in  his Dearborn Independent newspaper.

 Ford's articles inspired a young Adolf Hitler and helped pave the road to
 the Holocaust.

 A compilation of Ford's articles was later published in book form, and to
 this day The International Jew - The World's Foremost Problem continues
to inculcate hatred of Jews.

Friday, 11 April, 2003
  Archive 041103
Company names appearing in this article are:
Ford Motor Company


Philadelphia Inquirer | 04/04/2002 | How Henry Ford
 hoped to mass-produce hatred of Jews

By Carlin Romano, Inquirer Book Critic - Thursday, April 04, 2002
How Henry Ford hoped to mass-produce hatred of Jews Neil Baldwin,
 who wrote about the auto magnate's
 decades of deep anti-Semitism...
 Company names appearing in this article are:
Ford Motor Company
Tikkun Magazine - "The Great Divide"

By Charles Patterson, Ph.D.
Where does all the war, racism, genocide, terrorism, violence,
and cruelty so endemic to human civilization come from?
Why do humans exploit and massacre each other so regularly? . .
May / June 2003
Company names appearing in this excerpt are:
 Ford Motor Company

Washingtonpost.com: Ford and GM
 Scrutinized for Alleged Nazi Collaboration

 By Michael Dobbs Washington Post Staff Writer - Monday,
November 30, 1998; Page A01
 Company names appearing in this article are:
           Ford Motor Company
           General Motors Corporation

More on Human Rights

http://www.ny1.com/ny/NewsBeats/SubTopic/index.html?topicintid=2&subtopicintid=4&contentintid=31306
Education: Court Rules State's School Funding System
Shortchanges City Kids
                 JUNE 27TH, 2003

                The state Court of Appeals ruled Thursday that the
                state is not adequately educating New York City’s 1.1
                million school children.

                In a 4-1 decision, the justices upheld a 2001 ruling by
                a state Supreme Court judge who said the state's
                education funding system shortchanges the mostly
                minority population in city schools, who have the most
                need and the highest costs but receive the lowest
                per-student funding in the state. That decision was
                overturned by a state appeals court last year.

                The court has now given legislators one year to revamp
                the way education money is divided.

                “This is a victory for all New Yorkers,” said City
                Councilman Robert Jackson, who started the fight in
                1991 as a parent leader in Washington Heights. “No
                matter where you are no matter whether you are in
                public school or private school. It sets the minimum
                standards for everyone.”

                "It recognizes the high costs that are associated with
                doing business in the city and says those children are
                entitled to an education that is comparable to other
                children around the state,” said Assembly Speaker
                Sheldon Silver. “We have to figure out how to get the
                necessary resources to make sure that that happens."


                Governor George Pataki said lawmakers have been
                working for a long time to ensure the system is fair.

                “This lawsuit began long before I was the governor,
                when New York City was shortchanged and wasn’t
                getting an adequate percentage of resources,” said
                Pataki. “We worked very hard to change that, and we'll
                continue to work hard to change it."

                The governor has maintained the issue should be left to
                the state to resolve, not the courts. But under the
                ruling, the court ordered the state legislature to:

                 determine the actual cost of a high school education
                in New York City;

                 provide the resources to provide that education and
                hold the state accountable;

                 create a system to ensure the funds are used
                properly, or face court intervention.


                The Campaign for Fiscal Equity sued the state in 2001,
                seeking a complete overhaul of its education budget.
                The suit, which was backed by the city, claimed
                one-third of the city's elementary students are
                functionally illiterate, and 40 percent of ninth graders
                never graduate.
 
The state & Governor (Talaban) Pataki argued the city already
gets more money than most districts nationwide, and
that the state constitution requires only that children
get a "minimally adequate" education.
He thinks an 8th. grade education is
 good enough for Blacks"..
http://dienekes.com/greek/
http://web.archive.org/web/*/http://www.stormfront.org/whitehistory/

This Is how they have killed, our future becaus no man is free until all are free.
  Hitler passed a law banning the sale of any book newer than 25 years old to a Jewish person.
today without Hitler we in NYC provide the children with books the average age of 50 years old.
DO THE MATH
    ( Editors note: NYC student allowance for the Library is
   PALTRY $6.00 per child yet in the Suburbs its $22.00
          per child. Sources Ch 1 NYC March 2002 )


                “What the court upheld is an adequacy decision, not
                just an equity decision,” said Michael Rebell of the
                Campaign for Fiscal Equity. “And what they said is
                every kid is entitled to the amount of money they need
                to get a meaningful high school education.”

 At issue is what constitutes a “sound, basic education,”
as mandated by the state constitution. The original judge
ruled city students were not getting enough resources, but
 the appeals court ruled the state only needs to provide an
eighth grade education to enable citizens to vote and sit
on juries.

“I don’t know how we could look in mirror and
say aneighth grade education is good enough,”
said Mayor Michael Bloomberg. “We can't
shortchange kids. The state can't shortchange
us.”

                The state Legislature now has 13 months to develop a
                plan that's fair for the city's kids. If it's unable to by July
                30 of next year, the court will step in and take the
                issue into its own hands.

                 RELATED STORIES

 Parents Say Court's Schools Ruling Long Overdue

 Parents Say Ruling Long Overdue
                JUNE 26TH, 2003


                On the last day of school Thursday, there was one
                more thing for children to celebrate. In the following
                story, NY1's Ruschell West has reaction to the court
                ruling on school funding from one of the most
                overcrowded schools in the city.

                It's the end of the school year.

                But that's not the only reason for New York City public
                school kids to be happy. Thursday, the state's highest
                court said the state must do a lot more for city
                schools.

                “Students should be able to learn about the things
                they want to learn,” said Sharnam Ahmed, a student
                “and the governor should put more money so the
                public school teachers could teach the children.”

                The Court of Appeals couldn't put it any better. It ruled
                the state's school funding formula shortchanges city
                students, something parents have believed for a long
                time.

                “It is not fair,” said Sunil Kumar, a parent. “It is not fair
                at all.”

                As word of the ruling started to spread among the
                parents picking up their children at P.S. 11 in
                Woodside, some couldn't help expressing their anger
                at the current system.

                “It does make me very angry because it's not fair,” said
                Kariben Pena, a parent. “It shouldn't be that way.”

                “It is harder for the parents if they have less funding for
                the school,” said lsng Dolme, another parent.

                The decision could have a great impact on schools
                P.S. 11, which is one of the most overcrowded in the
                city.

                “The teachers here work very, very hard to educate the
                students,” said Jeanne Alvarado, a parent. “The
                classrooms are overcrowded and there's just not
                enough.”

                While the court is ordering the state Legislature and
                the governor to change the system, parents said it's
                the governor they're going to be watching most closely
                to see if he comes up with a fair solution.

                “I would like to see the governor put more effort into the
                education system to put back the after-school
                programs that runs here and basically understand the
                needs of the children,” Alvarado said.

                The court is giving Albany a year to get its act in order.


                --Ruschell West



Refuting Arthur Kemp's March of the Titans



 WHY DID THEY CARE SO MUCH AND DO SO LITTLE, TO CONTRIBUTE ANY THING?
 I wonder if there actully ever was a common good that can be what you call civilization are
 there really expressing it?
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
James


                     Country/City
                               England
                     Comments
                               Very good site. But don't fall for the bait of those White supremacist
                               bastards. They're jealous fuckers as personified by that bitch Trog on
                               the Racial Myths message board. These extremists want you to react
                               so that you can fall in to teh trap of an ever spiraling argument that
                               goes no where!

                               We all know Mediterraneans are the fittest as the old saying goes:
                               'tall, dark and handsome' I can't see the word blonde in their can you?
                          DATE
                               Sunday, July 13th 2003 - 09:08:35 PM


                         NAME
                               Willy the National Socialist Monkey
                     Comments
                               We should not define ourselves in subracial terms. There is an
                               old saw that if you wake a man up at three o'clock in the morning
                               and ask him "What are you?", you have a pretty good chance of
                               getting the truth out of him about how he sees himself. Now,
                               asked that question, all too many White people would answer, "I'm
                               a Redskins fan" or "I'm a Republican" or "I'm a Baptist" or
                               something like that. The better class of person might answer "I'm
                               a Frenchman" or "I'm an American" or, better yet, "I'm a White
                               American" or, best of all, "I'm a White man." But I can guarantee
                               you that no one will answer "I'm an Atlanto-Mediterranean with
                               Baltic admixture" or "I'm a Nordic." This subracial emphasis is
                               biologically vague and it is a complete political non-starter. In
                               fact, it militates against our survival because it creates
                               division and resentment. We need to stay completely away from the
                               "I'm Whiter than you" game.


                               Realism, Sanity, and Hope
                               by Kevin Alfred Strom


                               How true these words are. I have become annoyed and dismayed by
                               this splittering on all sides of this med and nord and slav rivalry. Slavs
                               argue their whiteness by attacking meds on some theory of negroid
                               admixture and meds retort with derisive comments about mongoloid
                               admixture in slavs and nords make similary comments back and forth
                               with either side. Now there is this general disrespect of the the
                               european women, whose more beautiful bullshit, meds or nords. We're
                               all white Europeans. White women should be worshiped and taken
                               care of. White posters squandor their time with this nonesense about
                               whose civilization is better, nord, med or slav. We all have something
                               to contribute to western culture and its survival for the future. White
                               people should be united, instead we war amongst ourselves. And to
                               add insult to injury, mulattos, blacks and jews who frequently post on
                               your msg board with their irrelevant nonesense of egalitarian bullshit,
                               and about how certain mixed individuals pass for white and all that
                               and so on. It is if whites are to be thankful to mix with other races to a
                               point of extinction and be content with the notion that anybody can
                               carry on the legacy of Western culture and society, BULLSHIT!!!
                               None of these non-white individuals add anything useful or
                               constructive in the discussion of race, don't expect it at a cultural
                               level. They do not take seriously the issue of race as a biological
                               entity or an immutable character. Somehow the concept of race can be
                               manipulated to their race mixing agenda, in their minds, carry on the
                               evolution of a society created by whites(be that meds, nords, slavs,
                               etc.), these non whites(jews and blacks, funny how no orientals find
                               their way on the msg board) find themselves talking amongst mostly
                               concerned whites, whites who are concerned about their race and
                               western culture or their piece of it, and basically disrupt the
                               discussions with their non-white, anti-western, phony bullshit.
                               WHAT NERVE!!! Your non-white posters have nothing to add
                               constructively to what should be a discussion of race and how it
                               should be treated to the survival of western society. Blacks, in
                               general, are a disruptive and crippling influence in western society
                               and jews lay the foundation for this effect on western culture and
                               have been for centuries. And for them to feel comfortable to fill your
                               msg board with their bullshit about race and culture in context of
                               Western Society and History is only due to the constant acrimony
                               between MEDS and NORDS and SLAVS. This acrimony is
                               encouraged by a few and maintained by most. Maintaining is not the
                               real problem, it is the encouragement that must stop.

                               88 Lines and 14 Words

                               alex221166

                               Fascinating. Really, it is. Well, actually it isn't. This has to be the most
                               boring and uninteresting thing I ever read since my Biochemistry
                               college manual.
                          DATE
                               Saturday, July 5th 2003 - 11:44:0

From The Archive The Atlantic Monthly | December 2003 by   George Soros


Dr. Joseph Mengele, Famous Quotation/
"The more we do to you,the less you seem to
believe we are doing it."

The Burton Report® represents a collection of three online educational Informatives® these are internet
 journals first published on January 1, 2000 and dedicated to the principle that health care and the health
 care process must be based on truth as well as the patient's best interest.  The information presented is
intended for dissemination.  Any alteration of Burton Report® is a violation of copyright.
Human Experimentation,Plutonium, and Colonel Stafford Warrenm

Experimentation,Plutonium, and Colonel Stafford Warren
In 1953 the Nuremberg Code was developed as a result of atrocities
 committed in the guise of "medical research" during the second
world war. In 1994 Eileen Welsome, a reporter for the Albuquerque
Tribune, was awarded the Pulitzer Prize, for her investigative reporting
 of a dark episode in American History relating to secret medical
 experiments. Her subsequent book "The Plutonium Files: America's
 Secret Medical Experiments In The Cold War" published by the Dial
 Press in 1999 is a fascinating as well as riveting narrative of this
 American experience.
In the 1940s a leading participant in
 performing potentially lethal medical
 research on unsuspecting military
 personnel and hospitalized patients
 was Army Colonel Stafford Warren,
a Professor of Radiology at the University of Rochester (New York) School of Medicine and Dentistry
and Chief of the Manhattan Project
Medical Section.

Dr. Joseph Mengele
Shiro Ishii
Stafford Warren, in his capacities as a U.S. medical officer (radiologist) and
medical faculty member at the University of Rochester appears to have had
primary responsibility for the now infamous plutonium injections performed
 on unsuspecting patients at Strong Memorial Hospital (Teaching Hospital
 of the University of Rochester) in 1945 along with Colonel Hymer Friedell
(also a M.D.).  A top secret and constantly guarded clandestine facility, the
"Manhattan Annex" was constructed across the street from the University
of Rochester Medical School. This endeavor was connected by a tunnel to
 the medical school itself.
 The facility was destroyed after WWII , and its activities were actively kept
hidden from the public until over a half-century later. By 1977 only one
survivor, Jeanne Connell remained, to tell the tale. That same year Connell,
and the heirs of the other human subjects, each received $400,000 from the
U.S. government with an official apology.
 (O'Neill et al., Betrayal of Trust, People Magazine, May 5, 1997).

The need for knowledge regarding the effects of plutonium on humans was
 information important to the needs of the United States during the 1940s.
There was, however, no justification to commit crimes against humanity in
 order to gain this knowledge as many individuals would have willingly
volunteered for such studies if provided with informed consent and
responsible overview.

In fact, this exact precedent had been established in 1900 when the United
 States Army Yellow Fever Commission, in Havana, Cuba, asked for volunteers
 to be bitten by mosquitoes laden with yellow fever. Full disclosure of risk,
including possible death, was provided to all of the volunteers. Some of
the first to step forward were physicians Jesse Lazear and James Carroll.
Volunteer nurse Clara Louise Maass died from the effects of this transmitted
 disease. This situation was groundbreaking in establishing the basis of
informed consent by a conscientious approach to human experimentation
 by ethical health professionals. In contradistinction to the valiant yellow
 fever volunteers none of the physicians involved in plutonium
experimentation ever used themselves as test subjects.

One of the great moments of the Clinton administration were the actions
 of Secretary of the Department of Energy, Hazel O'Leary, and her official
response upon learning about "America's Nuclear Shame" (term coined by
CNN's Bernard Shaw). Her integrity and leadership did not permit the government
 to resort to the, not infrequently practiced, Washington protocol of denial,
character assassination, "cover-up" with associated subsequent "damage
control".

In addition to wearing his cap as a Manhattan Project Officer Colonel
Stafford Warren was, at the same time, also involved in the development
of radiographic media at the University of Rochester School of Medicine
 and Dentistry. He, and his associates Strain and Plati, developed the
myelographic oil-ester Pantopaque® for which they received U.S. Patent
2,348,231 which was issued on May 9, 1944. The Parisian Report
chronicles the tale of this saga and the Burton Report® documents the
relationship of Pantopaque® to the neuropathologic entity "adhesive
arachnoiditis". In one of medicines great mysteries Pantopaque®, which
 was never shown to be "safe", was initially introduced for use in small
amounts (1-2cc) for locating spinal tumors, it then appeared on the world
 scene for high volume (12-15cc), routine use, in diagnosing disc
 herniations.
A number of clinicians have published on the dangers of oil myelography.
In 1942 Van Wagenen (a neurosurgical colleague of Warrens, at the
 University of Rochester) identified Pantopaque® as causing chemical
meningitis in 30 patients where "space-displacing masses within the
 spinal canal were suspected". Despite this important information
Pantopaque® was subsequently distributed to the United States military
 by Warren, under circumstances inconsistent with American Medical
Association principles and Food and Drug Administration requirements.
Only minimal effort has ever been directed to documenting the numbers
of military personnel who became disabled following oil myelography and
 spinal surgery during the period 1940-1985. How many military veterans
experienced a Pantopaque® myelogram during this period is simply not
known but, there are clearly many thousands of veterans whose lives
were destroyed from this experience. Should the United States Veteran's
Administration ever initiate a meaningful attempt to identify (and also
 assist such suffers) it would most certainly open another important
chapter of American medical history. Because we have not yet endeavored
to learn from this appalling experience in medical care and poor science
 many unfortunate patients continue to suffer from similar problems.


Medical Research and Human Subjects
As with many well-intentioned efforts in the field of
health care the legitimate concerns about protecting
the rights and welfare of human subjects participating
medical research have now assumed a life of their
own.

Until the mid-part of the 20th century concerns regarding medical ethics
basically related to therapeutics with little attention being directed to medical research.
This changed dramatically in 1946 when 20 high-ranking Nazi physicians were
placed on trial in Nuremberg, Germany and charged with war crimes against
 humanity or performing experimental procedures on human beings without
 their consent.
With the publication of "The Plutonium Files" by Eileen Welsome in 1999 the
citizens United States finally became aware of similar human experiments on
unknowing hospital patients in the 1940s.

The Nuremberg trials verified society's need for
fundamental ethical standards in the conduct of
research involving human subjects.

The creation of the Nuremberg Code reflected this need. This Code was
subsequently incorporated into the Declaration of Human Rights
of the United Nations.

In the United States, in 1953, the Nuremberg Code served as the impetus
 for the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to produce the first federal policy for
 the protection of human research subjects. Efforts by the World Medical
Association and the World Health Organization subsequently led to the 1960
Declaration of Helsinki which was adopted by the World Medical Society in
1964. Its recommendations on biomedical research and the use of human
subjects was updated in 1975, 1980, and 1989.

In 1966, Henry Beecher, physician-researcher from Harvard University and, in
1967, Maurice Pappworth, physician-ethicist from England issued intelligence
 documenting that significant abuses existed in the conduct of research
involving human subjects at many of the leading medical research institutions
in America and Britain. These, and other, revelations regarding violations in
 the ethics of research led the United States Congress, in the 1970s, to bring
pressure on the (then) Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW)
to generate federal regulations and to create a National Commission for the
Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research. One
 of the results of this was the publication, by the Commission, of the Belmont
 Report: Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human
Subjects of Research.

At the "grass roots" level these activities led to the creation of Human Subject
 Research Review Committees at medical facilities throughout the United
 States.

These Committees were originally organized for the expressed purpose of
 protecting the rights and welfare of patient participants in medical research
 projects and to make sure that informed consent existed. These Committees,
 ostensibly composed of peer physicians, scientists, and consumer
representatives, have, over the years, also become progressively involved in
 additional areas of inquiry including:

Review of the Research Project
Quality Assessment of the Research Protocol
Determination of Investigator Integrity
Determination of Real or Potential Researcher Conflict of Interest
Disclosure of Real or Potential Conflict of Interest by Participating Parties

There can be no question but that the need to protect the rights and welfar
 of the human subject participants in medical research is paramount. The
 Burton Experience has been that the role of the Institutional Human
Subject Research Review Committees has changed over he past 2
decades.

 While their concern has remained the welfare of the patient they have
become distracted by the increased scope of their overview and their own
importance.

 Part of this is reflected in their change of name to: Institutional Review
 Board (IRB).

As IRBs involvement in assessing research protocols has become so
 involved that it has become, in many cases, a serious liability to the
performance of the research itself. This is particularly true when the
research is inherently safe offering minimal (if any) risk to the human
subject. Those types of research requiring the more stringent overview,
 i.e. those involving high risk to the human subject are frequently "short-
schrifted" because of valuable time wasted on other, relatively
 meaningless, discussions. There are now many talented researchers,
performing important scientific studies who are totally frustrated by the
frivolous  delays in their work created for them by IRB committees and
 boards.
 This is a important issue.

 It deserves attention.

 Better review criteria and guidelines are needed.


http://www.burtonreport.com/InfForensic/HumanExperPlutonium.htm

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