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ciamc                      
fine print 2
Subject: Saw it in the local paper Date:  Sat, 18 Aug 2001 20:25:03 -0600
               From:Lawrence D. Bruch" <info@scenesaver.com>
    To :>)     http://www.laflea.com/war.html

 august18.max  Name: august18.max Type: Netscape File
 (application/x-unknown-content-type-Paper.Document)
 Encoding: base64

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++


"Sounds simular to the Gossamer Satellite?"

Larry

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

 Dear Lary thank you for sending this but guess what happined...
All of  my Netscape  NI BOX stuff Just disappeared totaly one day
 including my friend Joanna's Grand kid's first baby photos Gigantic
1.5 meg files the In Box folder was about 1 Gig of Mail  no Back up
 I can find for Sep/ Oct I assume it was a Wily but kludgy Worm
 because it stooped with a First file command I  have multiple ISP's
 and Mail accounts So I still have your address although
you have not responded which is why I am sending this page to you .
Lois and I both hope you and yours are well .
It's giting cold in this apt. The super is in Cancoon on vacation and
can't likely re inter the states for some time as borders appear to be
  " sealed " .
( good thing to sift out the chaff )

The reason I am writing you is again to thank you.
 but to say I can't reads this file you sent re: Goss. Satt. please send
it back to me as an RTF or something  more common like ..wpd or
acrobat .pdf or send me  the link to the URL .

I am still active on my version of  A Privet Balloon launch Solar Sail Solar Sat
And a claim to Homestead some part of outer space with a micro version
 ( My original concept In partnership with Greg M. who says he is still "on board )
  solar system wide Interferometer .
< As seen on the Proto 2  page ]
With that in mind consider a thin film product,  produced with conductive polymer's  
that reads radioactivity also useful for Photovoltaic "dog tag Radiation Dector refereed
 to on the other page on this site as Geiger counter .

< Use the scroll bar and go to Anti Nuke Links antinukepage]

( ps )
Yes its entirely possible " they "  will " rip it off " too but at least "my "
contribution will be made albeit via an indirect route.As to consultant fees
and any acknowledgment or credit to me ...Better than nothing !

 [ I will have a new intro. to The G. Sat Mars boys according to Greg  ...]
As we spoke of on the phone there are many many many Priorities
that superseed any of the so called Impearitives of  Mars Missions
" but It is a kind of Work around for the actual work that we must do !
" Shoot for the moon &  hit the mud better than nothing. "
I am still wishing for the " Cop -Cam " wireliss app. I may have new alies
 on that project ...Only time will tell ..
The vision goes forward Keep the faith
Be well
All the best  Charles Mingus III

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

So even if I e-mail YOU from
there or any other web host
just use the address at the
 PLEASE !!

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Sunday Week One
Old Homestead soon2 b  ( revamped Sep 30  deadline )

Free fonts with a genorous amount of quality



Microsoft Patents Ones, Zeroes


billgates666 baloney

Send this  floating city to Yungi

Just what it says

daves world sold out?

Shairwear datadump


soon 2 b the home of virtuallyshakespear &
virtualshakespear & thepeoplesmuseum.com
& thegiganticheartlessmultinationalcorp.com
and the miror site of the others below

Homestead
Server account 1


Server account  2 therre are more :









I HAZ CONSTRITED A UNIVERCS FO U
BUT YUAI GOTTA TALK LAK DISS DONT
AXEME WHY ...


                          <><><><><><><><><><><>
<><><><><><><><><><><>><><><><><><><><><><><
                         <><><><><><><><><><><>

"Should I read more books?"

Although they say nothing about me they may be of some
 interest to you. I liked them enough to recommend them as
very important to any one that is curious about stuff .

  BOOK #1 The Scocity of Mind
  Marvin Minsky
  copyright 1985/6
  Pub. Simon Schuster Inc.
  ISBN : 0-671-60740-5
  BOOK #2

  "GOLDEN AGE OF THE MOOR"  P .168
  Edited By: Ivan Van Sertima
  Pub: New Brunswick (Usa)
  ISSN: 0270-2495
  ISBN: 1-56000-581-5
  USA (c) 199/?

  BOOK #3
  Title : INDABA, MY CHILDREN
  Author : Vusamazulu Credo Mutwa
  ISBN 0 900707 07 0
  Pub: 1996
       Kahn  &  Averill
  11 Stanhope Mews, London Sw7
  Blue Crane Books ( Pty ) Ltd.
  Printed in Great Britain by
  Redwood Burn Limited, Trowbridge, Wiltshire

*************************
FORWARDED:

Yes, it's hard to imagine this possibility wasn't in the hopper. And if the
seers saw it, why wasn't it at a higher priority? I've been getting a lot
of mail on this subject. I copy one below from a traveler, my homeboy,
 the political satirist, Michael Moore. I warn you his letter may sound
unPatriotic at this time. As usual you may read it or delete it.

Steve Dowling are you OK?
>From: "D-Sooch  a.k.a.  I, Storm" <istorm2000@earthlink.net>
>Subject: FW: Letter from Michael Moore
>Date: Thu, 13 Sep 2001 13:27:40 -0400
>
>Death, Downtown
>
>Dear friends,
>I was supposed to fly today on the 4:30 PM American Airlines flight
from LAX to JFK. But tonight I find myself stuck in L.A. with an
 incredible range of emotions over what has happened on the
 island where I work and live in New York City.
>
>My wife and I spent the first hours of the day -- after being
 awakened by phone calls from our parents at 6:40am PT --
 trying to contact our daughter at school in New York and our friend
JoAnn who works near the World Trade Center.
>
>I called JoAnn at her office. As someone picked up, the first tower
>imploded, and the person answering the phone screamed and ran
out,leaving me no clue as to whether or not she or JoAnn would live.
>
>It was a sick, horrible, frightening day.
>
>On December 27, 1985 I found myself caught in the middle of a terrorist
>incident at the Vienna airport -- which left 30 people dead, both there
 and at the Rome airport. (The machine-gunning of passengers in each
 city was timed to occur at the same moment.)

I do not feel like discussing that event tonight because it still brings up
>too much despair and confusion as to how and why I got to live. A fluke,
>a mistake, a few feet on the tarmac, and I am still here, there but for the
>grace of.
>
>Safe. Secure. I'm an American, living in America. I like my illusions. I
>walk through a metal detector, I put my carry-ons through an x-ray
machine, and I know all will be well.
>
>Here's a short list of my experiences lately with airport security:
>
>* At the Newark Airport, the plane is late at boarding everyone. The
>counter can't find my seat. So I am told to just "go ahead and get
 on" -- without a ticket!
>
>* At Detroit Metro Airport, I don't want to put the lunch I just bought
 at the deli through the x-ray machine so, as I pass through the metal
>detector, I hand the sack to the guard through the space between
the detector and the x-ray machine. I tell him "It's just a sandwich."
He believes me and doesn't bother to check. The sack has gone
 through neither security device.
>
>* At LaGuardia in New York, I check a piece of luggage, but decide
to catch a later plane. The first plane leaves without me, but with
my bag -- no one knowing what is in it.
>
>* Back in Detroit, I take my time getting off the commuter plane.
By thetime I have come down its stairs, the bus that takes the
passengers to the terminal has left -- without me. I am alone on the
tarmac, free to wander wherever I want. So I do. Eventually, I flag
down a pick-up truck and an airplane mechanic gives me a ride
the rest of the way to theterminal.
>
>* I have brought knives, razors; and once, my traveling
companion brought a hammer and chisel. No one stopped us.
>
>Of course, I have gotten away with all of this because the airlines
>consider my safety SO important, they pay rent-a-cops $5.75
 an hour to make sure the bad guys don't get on my plane.
 That is what my life is worth -- less than the cost of an oil change.
>
>Too harsh, you say? Well, chew on this: a first-year pilot on
 American Eagle (the commuter arm of American Airlines)
receives around $15,000 a year in annual pay.
>
>That's right -- $15,000 for the person who has your life in
his hands. Until recently, Continental Express paid a little over
 $13,000 a year. There was one guy, an American Eagle pilot,
who had four kids so he went down to the welfare office and
 applied for food stamps -- and he was eligible!
>
>Someone on welfare is flying my plane? Is this for real?
Yes, it is.
>
>So spare me the talk about all the precautions the airlines
 and the FAA is taking. They, like all businesses, are concerned
 about one thing -- the
>bottom line and the profit margin.
>
>Four teams of 3-5 people were all able to penetrate airport
security on the same morning at 3 different airports and pull
off this heinous act? My only response is -- that's all?
>
>Well, the pundits are in full diarrhea mode, gushing on
about the "terrorist threat" and today's scariest dude on
planet earth --
 Osama bin Laden. Hey, who knows, maybe he did it. But,
something just doesn't add up.
>
>Am I being asked to believe that this guy who sleeps in a tent in a desert
>has been training pilots to fly our most modern, sophisticated jumbo jets with such pinpoint accuracy that they are able to hit these three targets without anyone wondering why these planes were so far off path?
>
>Or am I being asked to believe that there were four religious/political
>fanatics who JUST HAPPENED to be skilled airline pilots who JUST HAPPENED to want to kill themselves today?
>
>Maybe you can find one jumbo jet pilot willing to die for the cause --
>but FOUR? Ok, maybe you can -- I don't know.
>
>What I do know is that all day long I have heard everything about this
>bin Laden guy except this one fact -- WE created the monster known as
>Osama bin Laden!
>
>Where did he go to terrorist school? At the CIA!
>
>Don't take my word for it -- I saw a piece on MSNBC last year that laid it
>all out. When the Soviet Union occupied Afghanistan, the CIA trained him and his buddies in how to commits acts of terrorism against the Soviet forces. It worked! The Soviets turned and ran. Bin Laden was grateful for what we taught him and thought it might be fun to use those same techniques against us.
>
>We abhor terrorism -- unless we're the ones doing
the terrorizing.
>
>We paid and trained and armed a group of terrorists in Nicaragua in the
>1980s who killed over 30,000 civilians. That was OUR work. You and me.
>Thirty thousand murdered civilians and who the hell even remembers!
>
>We fund a lot of oppressive regimes that have killed a lot of innocent
>people, and we never let the human suffering THAT causes to interrupt
>our day one single bit.
>
>We have orphaned so many children, tens of thousands around the world,with our taxpayer-funded terrorism
>(in Chile, in Vietnam, in Gaza, in Salvador)
>that I suppose we shouldn't be too surprised when those orphans grow up and are a little whacked in the head from the horror we have helped cause.
>
>Yet, our recent domestic terrorism bombings have not been conducted by a guy from the desert but rather by our own citizens: a couple of
>ex-military guys who hated the federal government.
From the first minutes of today's events, I never heard that possibility
>suggested. Why is that?
>
>Maybe it's because the A-rabs are much better foils. A key ingredient in
>getting Americans whipped into a frenzy against a new enemy is the
>all-important race card. It's much easier to get us to hate when the object
>of our hatred doesn't look like us.
>
>Congressmen and Senators spent the day calling for more money for >the military; one Senator on CNN even said he didn't want to hear any >more talk about more money for education or health care -- we should >have only one priority: our self-defense.
>
>Will we ever get to the point that we realize we will be more secure when
>the rest of the world isn't living in poverty so we can have nice running
>shoes?
>
>In just 8 months, Bush gets the whole world back to hating us again.
>He withdraws from the Kyoto agreement, walks us out of the Durban
>conference on racism, insists on restarting the arms race --
>you name it, and Baby Bush has blown it all.
>
>The Senators and Congressmen tonight broke out in a spontaneous >version of "God Bless America." They're not a bad group of singers!
>
>Yes, God, please do bless us.
>
>Many families have been devastated tonight. This just is not right.
>They did not deserve to die. If someone did this to get back at >Bush,then they did so by killing thousands of people who DID >NOT VOTE for him! Boston, New York, DC, and the planes' >destination of California -- these were places that voted
>AGAINST Bush!
>
>Why kill them? Why kill anyone? Such insanity.
>
>Let's mourn, let's grieve, and when it's appropriate let's examine our contribution to the unsafe world we live in.
>
>It doesn't have to be like this.
>
>Yours,
>Michael Moore
>
>
>





*************************

*************************
Sunday Week One


If you haven't yet, please take a minute to read this answer and the attached letter to President Bush.Thanks.Yours, Richard
-------------------------------
  Where the Violence Comes From

   by Rabbi Michael Lerner    Editor, TIKKUN Magazine

   There is never any justification for acts of terror against innocent civilians -- it is the quintessential act of dehumanization and not recognizing the sanctity of others, and a visible symbol of a world increasingly irrational and out of control.  It's understandable why many of us, after grieving and consoling the mourners, will feel anger--and while some demagogues in  Congress have already sought to manipulate that feeling into a growing militarism (more spies, legalize assassinations of foreign  leaders, increase the defense budget at the expense of domestic programs), the more "responsible" leaders are seeking to narrow America's response to targeted attacks on countries that allegedly harbor the terrorists.

 But though the perpetrators deserve to be punished, and I personally would be happy if all the people involved in this act were to be imprisoned for the rest of their lives, in some ways this narrow
focus allows us to avoid dealing with the underlying issues. When violence becomes so prevalent throughout the planet, it's too easy to simply talk of "deranged minds."
We need to ask ourselves, "What is it in the way that we are living, organizing our societies, and treating each other that makes violence seem plausible to so many people?"
 We in the spiritual world will see this as a growing global incapacity to recognize the spirit of God in each other--what we call the sanctityof each human being.
 But even if you reject religious language, you can see that the willingness of people to hurt each other to advance their own interests has become a global problem, and its only the dramatic level of this particular attack which distinguishes it from the violence and insensitivity to each other that is part of our daily lives.

   We may tell ourselves that the current violence has "nothing to do" with the way that we've learned to close our ears when told that one out of every three people on this planet does not have enough food, and that one billion are literally starving.

We may reassure ourselves  that the hoarding of the world's resources by the richest society in world history, and our frantic attempts to accelerate globalization with its attendant inequalities
 of wealth, has nothing to do with the resentment that others feel toward us.

 We may tell ourselves that the suffering of refugees
and the oppressed have nothing to do with  us --
that that's a different story that is going on somewhere
 else.
 But we live in one world, increasingly interconnected with everyone, and the forces that lead people to feel outrage, anger and  desperation eventually impact on our own daily lives.

   The same inability to feel the pain of others is the pathology that shapes the minds of these terrorists.

Raise children in circumstances where no one is there to take care of them, or where
they must live by begging or selling their bodies in prostitution, put them in refugee camps and tell them that that they have "no right of return" to their homes, treat them as though they are less valuable and deserving of respect because they are part of some despised national or ethnic group, surround them with a media that extols the rich and makes everyone who is not economically successful and physically trim and conventionally "beautiful" feel bad about themselves, offer them jobs whose sole goal is to enrich the "bottom line" of someone else, and teach them that "looking out for number one" is the only thing and that anyone who believes in love and social justice are merely naive idealists who are destined to always remain powerless, and you will produce a world-wide populatio! n of people feeling depressed, angry, unable to care about others, and in various ways dysfunctional.

  Luckily most people don't act out in violent ways -- they tend to act out more against themselves, drowning themselves in alcohol or drugs or personal despair.
Others turn toward fundamentalist religions or ultra-nationalist extremism.
 Still others find themselves acting out against people that they love, acting angry or hurtful toward children or relationship partners.

   Most Americans will feel puzzled by any reference to this "larger picture." It seems baffling to imagine that somehow we are part of a world system which is slowly destroying the life support system of the planet, and quickly transferring the wealth of the world into our own pockets.  

We don't feel personally responsible when an American corporation runs a sweat
shop in the Philippines or crushes efforts of workers to organize in Singapore.

We don't see ourselves implicated when the U.S. refuses to consider the plight of  Palestinian refugees or uses the excuse of fighting drugs to support repression in Colombia or other parts of Central America.

We don't even see the symbolism when terrorists attack America's military center and our trade center--we talk of them as buildings,
though others see them as centers of the forces that are causing
the world so much pain.

   We have narrowed our own attention to "getting through" or "doing well" in our own personal lives, and who has time to focus on all the rest of this? Most of us are leading perfectly reasonable lives within the options that we have available to us -- so why should others be angry at us, much less strike out against us? And the truth is, our anger is also understandable: the striking out by others in acts of terror against us is just as irrational as the world-system that it seeks to confront. Yet our acts of counter-terror will also be counterproductive.

   We should have learned from the current phase of the Israel-Palestinian struggle, responding to terror with more violence, rather than asking ourselves what we could do to change the conditions that generated it in the first place, will only ensure more violence against us in the future.

   This is a world out of touch with itself, filled with people who have forgotten how to recognize and respond to the sacred in each other  because we are so used to looking at others from the standpoint of what they can do for us, how we can use them toward our own ends.
  The alternatives are stark: either start caring about the fate of everyone on this planet, or be prepared for a slippery slope toward violence  that will eventually dominate our daily lives.
 We should pray for the victims and the families of those who have been hurt or murdered in these crazy acts. We should also pray that  America does not return to "business as usual," but rather turns to a period of reflection, coming back into touch with our common
   humanity, asking ourselves how our institutions can best embody our highest values. We may need a global day of atonement and repentance dedicated to finding a way to turn the direction of our society at every level, a return to the notion that every human life is sacred, that "the bottom line" should be the creation of a world of love and caring, and that the best way to prevent these kinds of acts is not to turn ourselves into a police state, but turn ourselves into a society in which social justice, love, and compassion are so prevalent that violence becomes only a distant memory.

   Rabbi Michael Lerner is editor of
TIKKUN Magazine and rabbi of Beyt Tikkun
Synagogue in San Francisco.

  He is the author of Spirit Matters: Global Healing and  the Wisdom of the Soul and most recently (Sept 2001)  editor: Best Contemporary Jewish Writing
J2 wrote:

  >Hi, this was sent to me from a friend whose relationship with the author of
  >this must read article made it even more compelling for me to read.  I now
  >have more knowledge about the American Attack.
  >
  >FORWARD  FROM :G.
  >
  >Subject: LOOKING AT THE OTHER SIDE OF THE COIN
  >
  >Dear Friends,
  >The following was sent to me by my friend Tamim Ansary. Tamim is an
  >Afghani-American writer. He is also one of the most brilliant people I
  >know in this life. When he writes, I read. When he talks, I listen. Here
  >is his take on Afghanistan and the whole mess we are in.G
  >
  >...............
  >Dear Friends and Neighbors( and whoever else is on this email thread: )

  >I've been hearing a lot of talk about "bombing Afghanistan back to the
  >Stone Age." Ronn Owens, on KGO Talk Radio today, allowed that this would
  >mean killing innocent people, people who had nothing to do with this
  >atrocity, but "we're at war, we have to accept collateral damage. What
  >else can we do?"

  >  Minutes later I heard some TV pundit discussing whether
  >we "have the belly to do what must be done."  And I thought about the
  >issues being raised especially hard because I am from Afghanistan, and
  >even though I've lived here for 35 years I've
  >never lost track of what's going on there. So I want to tell anyone who
  >will listen how it all looks from where I'm standing.

  >I speak as one who hates the Taliban and Osama Bin Laden. There is no
  >doubt in my mind that these people were responsible for the atrocity in
  >New York. I agree that something must be done about those monsters.
  >But the Taliban and Ben Laden are not Afghanistan. They're not even the
  >government of Afghanistan. The Taliban are a cult of ignorant psychotics
  >who took over Afghanistan in 1997.

  >Bin Laden is a political criminal with a plan. When you think Taliban,
  >think Nazis. When you think Bin Laden, think Hitler. And when you think
  >"the people of Afghanistan"
  >think "the Jews in the concentration camps." It's not only that the
  >Afghan people had nothing to do with this atrocity. They were the first
  >victims of the perpetrators. They would exult if someone would come in
  >there, take out the Taliban and clear out the rats nest of international
  >thugs holed up in their country.

  >Some say, why don't the Afghans rise up and overthrow the Taliban? The
  >answer is, they're starved, exhausted, hurt, incapacitated, suffering. A
  >few years ago, the United Nations estimated that there are 500,000
  >disabled orphans in Afghanistan--a country with no economy, no food.
  >There are millions of widows. And the Taliban has been burying these
  >widows alive in mass graves. The soil is littered with land mines, the
  >farms were all destroyed by the Soviets.

  >These are a few of the reasons why the Afghan people have not overthrown
  >the Taliban.
  >We come now to the question of bombing Afghanistan back to the Stone Age.
  >Trouble is, that's been done. The Soviets took care of it already.

  >Make the Afghans suffer? They're already suffering. Level their houses?
  >Done. Turn their schools into piles of rubble? Done. Eradicate their
  >hospitals? Done. Destroy their infrastructure? Cut them off from medicine
  >and health
  >care? Too late. Someone already did all that. New bombs would only stir
  >the rubble of earlier bombs.

  >Would they at least get the Taliban? Not likely. In today's Afghanistan,
  >only the Taliban eat, only they have the means to move around. They'd slip
  >away and hide. Maybe the bombs would
  >get some of those disabled orphans, they don't move too fast, they don't
  >even have wheelchairs. But flying over Kabul and dropping bombs wouldn't
  >really be a strike against the criminals who did this horrific thing.
  >Actually it would only be making common cause with the Taliban--by
  >raping once again the people they've been raping all this time.

  >So what else is there? What can be done, then? Let me now speak with true fear
  >and trembling. The only way to get Bin Laden is to go in there with
  >ground troops. When people speak of "having the belly to do what needs
  >to be done" they're thinking in terms of having the belly to kill as
  >many as needed. Having the belly to overcome any moral qualms about
  >killing innocent people.

  >Let's pull our heads out of the sand. What's actually on the table is
  >Americans dying. And not just because some Americans would die fighting
  >their way through Afghanistan to Bin Laden's hideout. It's much bigger
  >than that folks. Because to get any troops to Afghanistan, we'd have to
  >go through Pakistan. Would they let us? Not likely. The conquest of
  >Pakistan would have to be first. Will other Muslim nations just stand
  >by? You see where I'm going. We're flirting with a world war between Islam
  >and the West.

  >And guess what: that's Bin Laden's program. That's exactly what he
  >wants. That's why he did this. Read his speeches and statements. It's
  >all right there. He really believes Islam would beat the west. It might
  >seem ridiculous, but he figures if he can polarize the world into Islam
  >and the West, he's got a billion soldiers. If the west wreaks a
  >holocaust in those lands, that's a billion people with nothing left to
  >lose, that's even better from Bin Laden's point of view.

  >He's probably wrong, in the end the west would win, whatever that would
  >mean, but the
  >war would last for years and millions would die, not just theirs but ours.
  >Who has the belly for that?

  >Bin Laden does. Anyone else?

  >Tamim Ansary  >\
<><><><<>><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>><><><><><><><>
The psychology and development http://www.abelard.org/hitler/hitler.htm
           of Adolph Hitler Schicklgruber

“The idea of struggle is as old as life itself, for life is only preserved because
other living things perish through struggle. In this struggle, the stronger, the
 more able, win, while the less able, the weak, lose. Struggle is the father of
 all things.

It is not by the principles of humanity that man lives or is able to preserve
himself above the animal world, but solely by means of the most brutal struggle.”

Fest, p.27 (Speech at Kulmbach on 5 February 1928, quoted in Hitler,
 A Study in Tyranny) I include this quote as a typical exemplar of the mundane
nature of Adolph’s education and thinking.  There is a surfeit of such among
his words.   
He also had strange ideas confusing ‘blood’ of a ‘nation’ with genetics.  
Such confusions are still common among the ignorant.
Elsewhere, he said “I think I am one of the most musical people in the world”.

7 September 1932; Ward Price, G; I know these dictators; London, 1938; p.20
 (quoted in Domaras)



                       
                         The master race ...Yeah right ! WHIPP IT B ABY!
                                            ARISTOTLE AND HIS BIMBO PLAY HORSEY .
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
.Nerve chip goes live First nerve cell-silicon microchip built.

28 August 2001  HELEN PEARSON "It has a touch of
  science fiction," admit the scientists who have wired up
  the first conducting nerve chip. The electronic circuit,
  grown from silicon and nerve cells, brings brain-repair chips,
  advanced biosensors and biological computers a small
  step towards reality. 'Neuroelectronics' combines nerve
  cells and microchips.It could one day lead to 'neuroprosthetic'
  implants replacing damaged nervous tissue, and advanced
  computers mimicking living, learning circui                                                                   http://www.nature.com/nsu/010830/010830-7.html
click this          ^               V clich that
   



the true nature of things is always deceptive


**********************************************************

BBJ

J. W. wrote:----- Original Message -----
  From: "J. W" <>
  To: "DW" <d@h.com>; "JJ " <>
  Sent: Friday, September 14, 2001 12:44 PM
  Subject: Fw: Concern2

Hi, I got an E-message from "Cuzzin" Carla last night; her usual merde' (Pardon  my Cajun).
How many people do you know who actually use the term "y'all" in written correspondence?
 Which reminds me of a forwarded recent message from a friend; forwarded, presumably in a
fit of irony. Have you ever noticed that people who use the word "hegemonic"
 in written correspondence are usually delusional idiots?
 It's True!
 Anyway, I sent her a reply. As I was in "don't give a rat's ass" mode, due  to the nature of the
recipient, I shared my more twisted feelings with  her.
 After reading it again today, I think it's sufficiently amusing to send to "y'all".
  Love,  J.

 PS: I would recommend that you scroll down to read her message first. Not
 that either message has much relation to the other, but the one sets the
 stage for the other.

   ----- Original Message -----
   From: "J W" <> To: <>
 Sent: Friday, September 14, 2001 1:17 AM
   Subject: Re: Concern2
 Hi,
 Yeah, we're OK. There's always some damn thing going on here. This is worse
 than most, but still...
  When I first came here, Son of Sam was shooting random people. I've
  always assumed some sort of terrorist crap was going to happen here, probably
nuclear or biological. Compared to my worst fears, this was a picnic. If
those loony towel-heads had swiped empty planes and flown them into the WTC
at 6AM, when it was empty, I might even have applauded. I've alwayshated those buildings
 anyway. I had to go in there a while after theearlier bombing, and it gave me the creeps.
 It was like visiting a  prison.

Last year niece K was visiting and I escorted her and S. down there to the TKTS office in
 the lobby. We stood in line for over an hour, and I was thrilled when we finally got out.
 I kept expecting the things to fall down on us. Who says there's no such thing as E.S.P.?

 Today I learned from a neighbor who was out front that morning, coming to the building from
the subway, that the first of the hijacked jumbo jets flew down Broadway on its way to the WTC.
 He said it was flying so low that the only part of the plane visible
from the street was the fuselage.
 If we had aTV antenna on the roof, it would probably have taken it off. When it got to Union
 Square he could hear the engines rev up even higher, for the home stretch. A minute later, he
heard the impact farther downtown. I was here listening to the Howard Stern Show, having a
cup of coffee and a cigarette, probably, when the thing flew over, and I didn't even notice it.
Like I said, there's always some kind of crap or racket going on outside here.  We also have a
 firehouse across the street from us, whose sirens don't even  wake us. There used to be a famous
disco, The Underground, a block or so  down Broadway from us. Every once in a while, there'd
 be a shootout outside it, with people diving under parked cars and stuff, and I'd never notice
 the  gunfire, either. If you pay attention to weird stuff here, you'll go crazy in no time. I've attached
 a fairly recent photo of S.. Unfortunately, the only one that was stored on this computer is scanned from a teeny polaroid. The other kid is Ss boy-pal, Matthew. He claims he's gay, but I
don't trust him anyway. It'd be just like the little creep to suddenly discover that he's actually bi- or
something worse. I would have written to everyone before this, but we recently got cable
 internet, with a whole new mail thing, and I haven't figured out how to do  mass mailing yet.

J

 ----- Original Message -----
 From: "W. D. H" <>
 To: <>
Sent: Thursday, September 13, 2001 11:54 PM
  > > Subject: Concern
  > >
  > >
 Dear J
 I have been at L's (she has moved from Lexington to MO, near St.  L).  When all this terrible
mess started, I was thinking of y'all and hoping you were safely home and not near the
 doomed area.
 L.  told me she had heard from you and you are safe.  I am so thankful.  I heard from Helen
and she, too, is ok - just rattled and worried.
 As we watch the news, one can't help but wonder when (and if) this thing will ever be over!
 Just wanted you to know we are thinking of you and so happy you are well.  Surely would
 love to see you.  You know you are always welcome here if you get the itch of visit the
 wonderful land of KY.  We have plenty of room and extra vehicles, so you can travel around
 as you please.  I hope you will seriously consider this soon.  Guess this week is reminding
 us just how short life really is.  Love to all and PLEASE send me a picture of  Stephanie.
 I am sure I would never recognize her.  Love to you all,
 your cuz, C. (D. too)
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------



The Paradox of our Time by George Carlin The paradox of our time
in history is that: we have taller buildings but shorter tempers; wider
freeways, but narrower viewpoints. We spend more, but have less;
we buy more but enjoy less. We have bigger houses and smaller
families, more conveniences, but less time; we have more
degrees, but less sense; more knowledge, but less judgment;
more experts, yet more problems,more medicine, but less
wellness.   We drink too much, smoke too much, spend too
recklessly, laugh too little,drive too fast, get too angry,  stay up too
late, get up too tired, read too little, watch TV too much, and pray
too seldom.

We have multiplied our possessions, but reduced our values.
We talk too much, love too seldom, and hate too often.
We've learned how to make a living, but not a life, we've added
 years to life not life to years.

We've been all the way to the moon and back, but have trouble
crossing the street to meet a new neighbor.
We conquered outer space but not inner space.
We've done larger things, but not better things.
We've cleaned up the air, but polluted the soul.
We've conquered the atom, but not our prejudice.

We write more, but learn less. We plan more, but accomplish
 less. We've learned to rush, but not to wait.

We build more computers to hold more information to produce
more copies than ever, but we communicate less and less.
These are the times of fast foods and slow digestion; big men
 and small character; steep profits and shallow relationships.
These are the days of two incomes but more divorce, fancier houses but broken homes. These are days of quick trips, disposable diapers,
 throw-away morality,one-night stands, overweight bodies,  and pills
 that do everything from cheer
 to quiet, to kill.

It is a time when there is much in the show window and nothing in the stockroom. A time when technology can bring this letter to you, and a time when you can choose either to share this insight, or to just hit delete.

Remember, spend some time with your loved ones, because they are not going to be around forever. Remember, say a kind word to someone who looks up to you in awe, because that little person soon will grow up and leave your side.

Remember, to give a warm hug to the one next to you, because that is the only treasure you can give with your heart and it doesn't cost a cent.

Remember, to say "I Love you" to your partner and your loved ones, but most of all mean it.  A kiss and an embrace will mend
hurt when it comes from deep inside of you.
Remember to hold hands and cherish the moment for someday that
person will not be there again.
Give time to Love, give time to speak, give time
to share the precious thoughts in your mind.

To all my friends in my life, thanks for being there.

*************************************************

  "10 Reasons Why Beer is Better then Jesus,"
with 5 reasons on front of mug and 5
 reasons on the back. Since you probably can't read it on the picture...

  10. No one will kill you for not drinking beer.

  9. Beer doesn't tell you how to have sex.

  8. Beer has never caused a major war.

  7. They don't force Beer on minors who can't think for themselves.

  6. When you have a Beer, you don't knock on people's doors trying to give it away.

  5. Nobody's ever been burned at the stake, hanged, or tortured
for his brand of Beer.

  4. You don't have to wait 2000+ years for a second Beer.

  3. There are laws saying Beer labels can't lie to you. 2. You can prove you have a Beer.

  1. If you've devoted your life to Beer, there are groups to help you stop.



  [Checkout]

  My new page


  Date:
  Why we fight!4V CM3

 RSVP Charles Mingus mingus1999@netzero.net not metconnect
#################################################################

  Very informative



  9/11/96


  'This was an act of wickedness for which there can never be any justification'

  ################################################################

  http://www.techweb.com/wire/story/TWB20010525S0010
  http://www.cnn.com/2001/TECH/ptech/05/29/apes.reut/index.html


  RIX check out the info re Jaynes etc.
  W Rix Victory II wrix2@hotmail.com
  ct: RE: Lift your spirits America Date: Thu, 13 Sep
  2001 12:10:12 -0500 Subject: ********U.S.
  Pride Day***********Flags Across America***********
  Tomorrow is U.S. pride day. Wear U.S. colors
  (jeans are blue, a
  white T shirt, etc). Try wearing as much red white
  and blue as you can.
  Send this message to as many other people you know.
  Lets get the whole country into it.
  At least send it to 10 other people.
  GOD BLESS AMERICA As a gesture to the
  terrorists that we, as Americans and as a free
  people, will overcome such tragedy,
  Friday SEPTEMBER 14 is "Flags AcrossAmerica.
  " All Americans are asked to display the American
  flag either in their homes or cars.
  All those outside of the U.S. who support us
  are asked to turn on your headlights that day.
  Let's keep the meaning of UNITED in
  "United States".
  ***************************************
  http://www.evolvefish.com/fish/buttons.html
  *************************************
  INFO: new book on slavery in modern africa
  ================================================

  Silent Terror: A Journey into Contemporary African Slavery

  by Samuel Cotton

  SILENT TERROR is the disturbing story of a black American's
  journey into the horrors of modern-day slavery in Africa. The
  author's odyssey takes him from New York to the Islamic Republic
  of Mauritania, where he comes face to face with the Arab-Berbers'
  centuries-old practice of enslaving black Africans. Samuel
  Cotton's research exposes this heinous practice while documenting
  and analyzing the hatred that the Arab minority holds for blacks,
  both slave and free, in a country where everyone is Muslim.

  Cotton takes the reader into the life of oppressed Africans and
  provides critical insights into the use of religion and language to
  successfully enslave blacks. He also shows the process by which Arab
  masters produce docile slaves. The narratives he recorded from those
  who escaped reveal the capacity for hope and courage. Interviews with
  former slaves who have become abolitionist leaders show the path from
  bondage to freedom and offer the hope that this grim practice will
  one day be a relic of the past. Silent Terror examines why African
  nations have been silent on this subject and the role that
  neocolonialism plays in continuing an unspeakable practice.

  This book is also a personal narrative. The author shares the impact
  of coming to grips with his African past and identity and his
  internal and external struggles to bring the issue of slavery to the
  American public. He sheds light on the growth of a modern-day
  abolitionist movement aimed at destroying the remaining strongholds
  of slavery and details the difficulty of getting the Black Muslim
  community to confront the idea of slavery in the Islamic world and to
  get black people in general to deal with this painful reality.

  $15.95 ISBN 0-86316-259-2, 240pp, 6 x 9

  Published by Writers and Readers Publishing, Harlem River Press

  ============================================================

  ============================================================

  #############################################
  this is e-drum, a listserv providing information of interests to
  black writers and diverse supporters worldwide. e-drum is moderated
  by kalamu ya salaam (kalamu@aol.com).

  #############################################
  People For the American Way Foundation 202 467 4999 phone
  2000 M Street NW Suite 400 202 293 2672 fax
  Washington DC 20036 pfaw@pfaw.org
***********************************************

Subject:   PRAXIS Digest of Applied Science - Complimentary
      Date: Sun, 16 Sep 2001 08:34:47 -0600
      From: "Science-Week" <prismx@scienceweek.com>
 Organization:  Science-Week
       To:  prismx@scienceweek.com


-------------- Enclosure number 1 ----------------
PRAXIS

A Weekly News Digest of Applied Science

September 17, 2001 -- Vol. 1 Number 14
---------------------------------------------------

In the continuing war against death, disease, and
poverty, the major weapon of our species is science.
To not see that is to have closed eyes.
-- Julian Tobias (1910-1963)

---------------------------------------------------

=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
Section 1
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=

Contents of this Issue (Full reports in Section 2):

1. Polymorphism in Crystals
2. Microsphere Photonics
3. Self-Assembly of Small Objects
4. Nanolithography on Semiconductor Surfaces
5. The Future of Nanotechnology
6. Year 2001 Top 10 Chemical Companies
7. Marijuana Triggering of Heart Attacks
8. History of Penicillin
9. Transgenic Crops Backed for Poor Nations
10. A Diagnostic Marker for Bladder Cancer
11. Ecological Forecasting
12. Overfishing and the Collapse of Ecosystems
13. SW Archive: Ozone Depletion and Plant DNA Damage
14. Source Abbreviations
15. PRAXIS Information

=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
Section 2
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=

1. POLYMORPHISM IN CRYSTALS
     In general, in this context, the term "polymorphism"
(pleomorphism) refers to the crystallization of a chemical
substance into two or more forms having different structures, for
example, diamond and graphite.
... ... H. Liu et al (North Carolina State University, US)
discuss polymorphism in crystals. Understanding the factors that
control polymorphism is important for the rational design and
synthesis of crystalline materials that exhibit targeted physical
properties, just as control of isomerism, for example, is
critical in natural product synthesis. In biology, only L-amino
acids are used in protein synthesis, and the enzymes that
catalyze the reactions do not recognize the D-enantiomers.
Similarly, in solid-state chemistry, two polymorphs of a material
frequently exhibit dramatically different properties. For
example, silicon carbide crystallizes in numerous polymorphs, the
most common polymorph widely utilized as the abrasive called
carborundum, whereas another polymorph is suitable for blue-light
emitting diodes. In the absence of a mechanistic understanding,
reaction design to achieve desired products is only an empirical
endeavor. While a detailed understanding of organic reaction
mechanisms is of fundamental importance to the modern
pharmaceutical industry, a mechanistic understanding of solid-
state chemistry is still in its infancy. Increasingly,
measurements of the kinetics and thermodynamics of solid-state
phase transitions in bulk solids and nanoparticles have been
reported, but microscopic descriptions of the atomic motions
involved, particularly where bonds are broken or formed, are
rarely presented.
-----------
JACS 123:7564
-----------
PRAXIS 17 Sep 2001 http://scienceweek.com/praxis

=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=

2. MICROSPHERE PHOTONICS
Stephen Arnold (Polytechnic University New York, US) discusses
microsphere photonics. The transfer of energy between neighboring
molecules plays a pivotal role in nature. In photosynthesis, for
example, a plant fuels its metabolism and growth with sunlight by
taking advantage of a curious physical phenomenon that allows
energy to hop from one chlorophyll molecule to another situated
approximately 0.5 nanometers away. A few hundred chlorophyll
molecules pass the energy they collect from the Sun in this way
to a single reaction center, the starting point for subsequent
chemical reactions. Without this mechanism for transferring
energy between molecules, photosynthesis would largely cease,
 and we would likely starve. The author considers the physics of the
transfer of energy between molecules in micron-scale domains,
droplets of approximately 10 microns diameter. Probing something
as subtle as the transfer of energy between molecules may seem
daunting, but in truth the procedure is straightforward. One
first energizes one type of molecule, the "donor", by
illuminating it with light from a properly tuned laser, which
kicks ground-state electrons to a higher energy level. Then one
looks for a transfer of this energy to another type of molecule,
the "acceptor", by sensing the characteristic color of light
emitted when its excited electrons fall back to a lower energy
state (the emission is called "fluorescence"). If no energy
passes between donors and acceptors, only the donor molecules
will fluoresce, giving off their own particular color. The ratio
of acceptor to donor fluorescence thus provides a convenient way
to gauge the amount of energy transferred. Investigations of such
energy transfers in microspheres has revealed that under
appropriate conditions the ratio of acceptor to donor
fluorescence can be more than 10 percent, which is substantially
greater than transfers in macroscopic domains.
-----------
AS 2001 89:414
-----------
PRAXIS 17 Sep 2001 http://scienceweek.com/praxis

=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=

3. SELF-ASSEMBLY OF SMALL OBJECTS
T.D. Clark et al (Harvard University, US) discuss self-assembly
of micro-objects. Three-dimensional structures with micrometer-
scale features are difficult to fabricate. This difficulty
notwithstanding, the characteristics of these structures -- large
volumetric densities of components, large ratios of interior
surface area to volume, and the potential for generating complex
internal shapes -- make them attractive as candidate materials
for certain photonic devices, as components of heat exchangers,
as supports for catalysis or chromatography, and perhaps
ultimately as platforms around which to build 3-dimensional
microelectronic systems. Strategies for fabrication based on
self-assembly provide new routes to 3-dimensional arrays of small
objects: they create stable constructs having a low level of
defects, and they can be applied to many structures and
materials. Previous studies concerning self-assembly of small
objects have dealt mainly with colloidal crystals -- ordered
arrays of particles having dimensions in the range of 1 nanometer
to 1 micron. Examples of colloidal crystal formation in natural
systems include the geological production of opals and the
biological crystallization of proteins and viruses. The authors
report experiments demonstrating that self-assembly using
capillary interactions can form large and regular arrays
("crystals") of components with largest dimensions of 10 to 30
microns.
-----------
JACS 123:7677
-----------
PRAXIS 17 Sep 2001 http://scienceweek.com/praxis

=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=

4. NANOLITHOGRAPHY ON SEMICONDUCTOR SURFACES
A. Ivanisevic and C.A. Mirkin (Northwestern University, US)
discuss nanolithography on semiconductor surfaces. "Dip-pen
nanolithography" (DPN) allows one to fabricate one-molecule-thick
nanostructures with micron to sub-100-nanometer dimensions on
solid substrates. With DPN methodology, an organic molecule, such
as a thiol, is used as "ink" and is transported from the tip of
an atomic force microscope through a water meniscus onto a gold
surface. This technique has been used to generate structures with
line widths as small as 10 nanometers and separations as little
as 5 nanometers. Thus far, all reported examples have dealt
exclusively with the "gold paper-thiol ink" combination, or the
use of metal salts as inks and an appropriately biased silicon
substrate to electrostatically drive the salts to the surface and
reduce them to form metallic and semiconductor lines. However, in
principle, the DPN approach for patterning organic nanostructures
can be extended to any substrate, provided one can identify
suitable inks through an understanding of the surface
modification chemistry of the substrate of interest, and the
compatibility of such inks with the meniscus ink-transport
medium. In a DPN experiment, the molecules chosen as "inks" and
the substrates serving as "paper" typically react with each other
in a facile and predictable manner to yield reproducible and
stable patterns. The authors report a successful strategy for
using DPN to write organic structures directly onto semiconductor
substrates.
-----------
JACS 2001 123:7887
-----------
PRAXIS 17 Sep 2001 http://scienceweek.com/praxis

=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=

5. THE FUTURE OF NANOTECHNOLOGY
Gary Stix (SA) discusses the future of nanotechnology. After
biomedical research and defense, nanotechnology has become the
most highly energized discipline in science and technology. The
field is a vast aggregate of ideas and experiments concerning the
creation of tiny things that sometimes are useful. Nanotechnology
borrows liberally from condensed-matter physics, engineering,
molecular biology, and large parts of chemistry. Researchers who
once called themselves materials scientists or organic chemists
have transmuted into "nanotechnologists". Purist academic types
may prefer to describe themselves as "mesoscale engineers".
However, it is the "nano" that generates the buzz. Probably not
since DuPont coined its corporate slogan "better things for
better living through chemistry" have scientists who engage in
molecular manipulation so adeptly captured and held public
attention. During the past decade, the following important
advances have occurred in this field: 1991: Sumio Iijima of NEC
discovers carbon nanotubes; 1993: W. Robinett and R.S. Williams
devise a virtual-reality system connected to a scanning tunneling
microscope that allows the user to see and touch atoms; 1998:
Cess Dekker creates a transistor from a carbon nanotube; 1999:
J.M. Tour and M.A. Reed demonstrate that single molecules can act
as molecular switches; 2000: the Clinton Administration announces
the National Nanotechnology Initiative, which provides an
important boost in funding and visibility for the field. If
nanotechnology fulfills its promise, it could lay the groundwork
for a new industrial revolution.
-----------
SA 2001 September
-----------
PRAXIS 17 Sep 2001 http://scienceweek.com/praxis

=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=

6. YEAR 2001 TOP 10 CHEMICAL COMPANIES
William J. Storck (CEN) discusses a recent survey of the US
chemical industry. This highly cyclical is currently in a
decline, with 2001 2nd quarter earnings down by 38 percent. For
the top 10 companies, sales in 2001 based on the first 6 months
are as follows:
------------------------------------
       Dow Chemical    $29 billion
     DuPont                     28
     PPG Industries       8.4
     Monsanto                 6.6
     Rohm and Haas     6.0
     Air Products            5.8
     Eastman Chemical 5.5
     Praxair                       5.3
     FMC                            3.8
     Solutia                        3.0
---------------------------------------
The chemical company with the highest profitability was Monsanto,
with earnings as percent of sales of 14.7. Total projected sales
in 2001 for the entire US chemical industry is $124 billion.
Declining chemical output has caused plant capacity utilization
to drop to 71.7 percent from 79.2 percent a year earlier.
-----------
CEN 2001 20 Aug
-----------
PRAXIS 17 Sep 2001 http://scienceweek.com/praxis

=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=

7. MARIJUANA TRIGGERING OF HEART ATTACKS
M.A. Mittleman et al (Harvard University, US) discuss the
triggering of myocardial infarction by marijuana. Use of this
drug in the age group prone to coronary heart disease is higher
than it was in the past. Smoking marijuana is known to have
hemodynamic consequences, including a dose-dependent increase
 in heart rate, supine hypertension, and postural hypotension.
However, whether the drug can trigger the onset of myocardial
infarction has not been clear. The authors interviewed 3882
patients (1258 women) an average of 4 days after the onset of
infarction. Of the 3882 patients, 124 (3.2 percent) reported
smoking marijuana in the prior year, 37 within 24 hours, and 9
within 1 hour of myocardial infarction symptoms. Compared with
nonusers who are myocardial infarction patients, marijuana users
were more likely to be men (94 percent versus 67 percent),
current cigarette smokers (68 percent versus 32 percent), and
obese (43 percent versus 32 percent). Marijuana users were less
likely to have a history of angina or hypertension. The risk of
myocardial infarction onset was elevated 4.8 times over baseline
in the 60 minutes after marijuana use, and the elevated risk
rapidly decreased thereafter. The authors conclude that smoking
marijuana is a rare trigger of acute myocardial infarction, and
that understanding the mechanism through which marijuana causes
infarction may provide insight into the triggering of myocardial
infarction by other stressors.
-----------
Circulation 2001 103:2805
-----------
PRAXIS 17 Sep 2001 http://scienceweek.com/praxis
-------------------
Related Background:
ON MARIJUANA CANNABINOIDS
     The drug "marijuana" is derived from the hemp plant Cannabis
sativa. The parts of the plant vary in potency, the resinous
exudate of the flowering tops of the female plant the most
potent, providing "hashish" and "charas". Next in potency are the
dried leaves and flowering shoots of the female plant (providing
"bhang"), and the resinous mass from small leaves of
inflorescence (providing "ganja"). The drug is usually inhaled by
smoking, with marijuana "joints" containing approximately 500
milligrams of marijuana, which in turn contains approximately
 5 to 15 milligrams of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

     With moderate dosage, marijuana produces mild euphoria
followed by sleepiness. In the acute state, the user has an
altered time perception, less inhibited emotions, psychomotor
problems, and impaired immediate memory. High doses produce
transient effects resembling psychosis. The drug frequently
aggravates existing mental illness, adversely affects motor
performance, and slows the learning process in children. Studies
of long-term effects have conclusively demonstrated abnormalities
in the lungs, laryngitis, rhinitis, and chronic obstructive
pulmonary disease. Chronic usage has resulted in depression of
plasma testosterone levels and reduced sperm counts. Abnormal
menstruation and failure to ovulate have occurred in some female
users. Sudden withdrawal produces insomnia, nausea, muscle pain
(myalgia), and irritability. In general, marijuana is a potent
psychoactive drug acting on the central nervous system and
producing both acute and chronic neurophysiological effects.
     The most important neuroactive chemical ingredients in
marijuana are the lipophilic cannabinoids, especially delta-9-
tetrahydrocannabinol. Cannabinoids are believed to act at several
specific cannabinoid receptors in the brain. When a human inhales
or ingests marijuana, the liver transforms it into a number of
metabolites, the most important of which is 11-hydroxy-delta-9-
tetrahydrocannabinol, which has effects identical to those of the
parent compound. 11-hydroxy-delta-9-THC is in turn converted to
more polar and inactive metabolites which are excreted in urine.
     Since certain cannabinoids are already present in the
nervous system without input of any drug, cannabinoids need to be
categorized as "exogenous" (from outside) versus "endogenous"
(from inside).
     In this context, the term "G-proteins" refers to a family of
signal-coupling proteins that act as intermediaries between
activated cell receptors and effectors, for example, the
transduction of hormonal signals from the cell surface to the
cell interior. The G-protein is apparently embedded in the cell
membrane with parts exposed on the outside surface and inside
surface. The outside moiety is activated by the "first messenger"
(e.g., a hormone), and the inside moiety activates a "second
messenger", the G-protein thus acting as a trans-membrane signal
transducer.

     "Neurotransmitters" are chemical substances released at the
terminals of nerve axons in response to the propagation of an
impulse to the end of that axon. The neurotransmitter substance
diffuses into the synapse, the junction between the presynaptic
nerve ending and the postsynaptic neuron, and at the membrane of
the postsynaptic neuron the transmitter substance interacts with
a receptor. Depending on the type of receptor, the result may be
an excitatory or an inhibitory effect on the postsynaptic nerve
cell.

     "GABA" is gamma-amino butyric acid, a neurotransmitter
substance. The term "GABA receptor" refers to any of several
membrane proteins that bind GABA and mediate its effects as an
inhibitory neurotransmitter.
     In this context, the term "depolarization" refers to a
reduction in the potential difference across the cell membrane.
The neuron action potential involves not only a transient
depolarization of the membrane but also a transient reversal of
polarity of the potential difference, the potential difference
across the neuron membrane during an action potential changing
from approximately -60 millivolts (inside negative) to
approximately +40 millivolts.
     The "hippocampus" is a brain cortex structure in the medial
part of the temporal lobe. In humans, among other functions, the
hippocampus is apparently involved in short-term memory. Analysis
of the neurological correlates of learning behavior in the rat
indicates that the hippocampus is also involved in memory in that
species. Nerve cells in rat brain slices remain active in vitro
in appropriate solutions for up to 24 hours, and such slices are
convenient tissues for experiments. "Hippocampal pyramidal
neurons" are a specific type of nerve cell in the hippocampus.
     The term "retrograde signaling" refers to neural information
transmission in a direction opposite to the primary signal
direction. In this context, the term refers to signaling from
postsynaptic neuron to presynaptic neuron. In general, retrograde
signaling in neural systems is usually part of a negative
feedback process.

     In general, an "interneuron" is any neuron that branches
locally to innervate other neurons.
     In general, in this context, an "agonist" is any substance
that binds to and activates a receptor.
... ... R.I. Wilson and R.A. Nicoll (University of California San
Francisco, US) report a study of the action of endogenous
cannabinoids, the authors making the following points:

     1) The authors point out that marijuana affects brain
function primarily by activating the G-protein-coupled
cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1), which is genetically expressed
throughout the brain at high levels. Two endogenous lipids,
anandamide and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), have been identified
as cannabinoid receptor-1 ligands, and depolarized hippocampal
neurons have been shown to rapidly release both anandamide and
 2- AG in a calcium-dependent manner. In the hippocampus, cannabinoid
receptor-1 is expressed mainly by GABA-mediated inhibitory
interneurons, where cannabinoid receptor-1 apparently clusters on
axon terminals of such interneurons. A synthetic cannabinoid
receptor-1 agonist has been demonstrated to depress GABA release
from hippocampal slices, which suggests that the function of
endogenous cannabinoids released by depolarized hippocampal
neurons might be to reduce GABA release (down-regulate GABA
release).
     2) The authors report that their experiments indicate that
the transient suppression of GABA-mediated transmission that
follows depolarization of hippocampal pyramidal neurons is
mediated by retrograde signaling through release of endogenous
cannabinoids. Signaling by the endocannabinoid system thus
represents a mechanism by which neurons can communicate
backwards across synapses to modulate their inputs.
The authors suggest this study represents the first identification
of a physiological process mediated by endogenous brain cannabinoids.
 Exogenous
cannabinoids such as marijuana may destroy the information
contained in endogenous cannabinoid feedback loops and thus
promote a more random pattern of synaptic modification.
-----------
NAT  2001 410:588
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SW 2001 20 Jul
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Related Background:
ON THE MECHANISM OF PAIN MODULATION BY CANNABINOIDS
In general, the clinical entity "hyperalgesia" (sometimes known
as "hyperalgia") is a heightened sensitivity to painful stimuli.
Cannabinoids are derivatives or preparations from the plant
Cannabis sativa (the marijuana plant), a group of a dozen
compounds chemically related to cannabinol, including delta-9-
tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and the cannabinoid receptor is the
binding site for the psychoactive component of marijuana, as well
as for anandamide, the endogenous physiological ligand.
Anandamide is known to modulate the pain pathway, but the
mechanisms are not clear. ... ... Richardson et al (3 authors at
Univ. of Minnesota Minneapolis, US) now report studies in animal
models that indicate that hyperalgesia may be linked to a faulty
cannabinoid system in the spinal cord. The authors suggest that
endogenous cannabinoids attenuate pain by preventing the release
of glutamate from presynaptic terminals of neurons that transmit
pain messages to the spinal cord.
-----------
CEN 1998 19 Jan
SW 1998 30 Jan
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8. HISTORY OF PENICILLIN
Linda R. Raber (CEN) discusses the history of the discovery of
penicillin. It is difficult to imagine that a little more than 60
years ago, a person could die from an infection caused by the
scratch of a thorn in a garden, that strep throat was a killer
disease, that more deaths occurred in war from infected wounds
than from the wounds themselves, and that being admitted to a
hospital for even a minor surgical procedure was often more
dangerous than foregoing surgical treatment. Penicillin was
discovered in 1928 by Alexander Fleming at St. Mary's hospital in
London (UK). Fleming had been studying staphylococcal bacteria
and was growing colonies of it in petri dishes in his cluttered
laboratory. Tidying up the laboratory after a vacation, Fleming
noticed that one of the petri dishes had become contaminated with
mold, the mold probably from the hospital's mycology laboratory.
Fleming observed that the mold apparently inhibited the growth of
bacteria in the environs of the mold, and he thought the mold
must be exuding something -- which he called "mold juice" -- that
killed the bacteria. He later identified the antibacterial
compound in the mold juice and named it "penicillin" after the
mold that produced it, Penicillium notatum. Fleming also
determined that penicillin killed a wide range of harmful
bacteria, such as streptococcus, meningococcus, and diphtheria
bacillus. He then set his assistants to isolate pure penicillin
from mold juice, and it was discovered that pure penicillin was
very unstable, and that only solutions of crude material were
useful. In 1941, H.W. Florey, E.B. Chain, and others were able to
stabilize and prepare enough penicillin for the first human
administration as a medical treatment -- accomplishments for
which Fleming, Florey, and Chain received the Nobel Prize in
Physiology or Medicine in 1945.
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CEN 2001 30 Jul
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PRAXIS 17 Sep 2001 http://scienceweek.com/praxis
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Related Background:
FRENCH PATHOLOGIST APPARENTLY DISCOVERED PENICILLIN
 IN 1897
The penicillin antibiotics are derived from molds of the genus
Penicillium and obtained by extraction of submerged cultures
grown in special media. The most widely used natural penicillin
is Penicillin G. Reuters News Agency has now reported that
British author Richard Barry has evidence that French scientist
Ernest Duchesne (1874-1912) described the antibiotic effects of
the mold later known as penicillin in a report to the Military
Health School of Lyon in 1897, the report evidently filed and
forgotten. Alexander Fleming (1881-1955) is credited with
discovering penicillin in 1928, and Fleming received the Nobel
Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1945 for the discovery.
According to Barry, who apparently has reviewed the relevant
French military records, after identifying the mold, Duchesne
injected it into guinea pigs to demonstrate that the mold could
protect against infections.
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SW Bulletin 1999 19 Jul
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PRAXIS 17 Sep 2001 http://scienceweek.com/praxis
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Related Background:
CONTROL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES 1900-1999
The first US civilian whose life was saved by penicillin died in
June 1999 at the age of 90 years. The story is as follows: In
March 1942, a 33-year-old woman was hospitalized for a month with
a life-threatening streptococcal infection at a New Haven,
Connecticut hospital. She was delirious, and her temperature
reached almost 107 degrees fahrenheit (41 degrees centigrade).
Treatments with sulfa drugs, blood transfusions, and surgery had
no effect. As a last resort, her doctors injected her with a
minuscule amount of an obscure experimental drug called
penicillin. Her hospital chart, now at the Smithsonian
Institution, indicates a sharp overnight drop in temperature, and
apparently by the next day she was no longer delirious. The woman
survived to marry, raise a family, and meet Alexander Fleming
(1881-1955), the scientist who discovered penicillin [*Note #1].
In 1945, Fleming was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology and
Medicine, along with Ernst Chain and Howard Florey, who helped
develop penicillin into a widely available medical product.
... ... The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in a
recent review of the control of infectious diseases in the 20th
century, makes the following points:
1) Deaths from infectious diseases have declined markedly in
the US during the 20th century. This decline contributed to a
sharp drop in infant and child mortality, and to the 29.2-year
increase in life expectancy.
  2) In 1900, 30.4 percent of all deaths occurred among
children less than 5 years of age; in 1997, deaths in this group
were only 1.4 percent of the total.
   3) In 1900, the 3 leading causes of death were a) pneumonia,
b) tuberculosis, c) diarrhea and inflammation of the intestinal
tract (enteritis). These 3 causes, together with diphtheria,
caused one-third of all deaths. Of these deaths, 40 percent were
among children less than 5 years of age. In 1997, heart disease
and cancers accounted for 54.7 percent of all deaths, with 4.5
percent attributable to pneumonia, influenza, and human immune
deficiency virus (HIV) infection.
   4) Despite this overall progress, one of the most
devastating epidemics in human history occurred during the 20th
century: the 1918 influenza epidemic that resulted in 20 million
deaths, including 500,000 in the US, in less than 1 year -- more
than have died in as short a time during any war or famine in the
world. HIV infection, first recognized in 1981, has caused a
pandemic that is still in progress, affecting 33 million people
and causing an estimated 13.9 million deaths. These epidemics
illustrate the volatility of infectious diseases death rates and
unpredictability of disease emergence.
-----------
MMWR 1999 48:621
JAMA 1999 282:1029
-----------
Notes:
... ... *Note #1: The story of Fleming's discovery of penicillin
is a classic tale of serendipity. In 1928, shortly after he was
appointed professor of bacteriology at the University of London,
Fleming left a culture of staphylococcus germs uncovered for some
days. He was finished working with the culture, and he was about
to discard the culture dish when he noticed that several specks
of mold had fallen into it, and that around every mold speck the
bacterial colony had dissolved away for a short distance. The
clear space surrounding each speck indicated that bacteria had
died and no new growth had invaded the area. The physicist John
Tyndall (1820-1893), who among other things did much research
with ordinary dust, had briefly noted a similar observation 50
years earlier. Fleming isolated the mold and eventually
identified it as Penicillium notatum, a mold closely related to
the common variety often found growing on stale bread. Fleming
decided that the mold liberated some compound that inhibited
bacterial growth, and he labelled the substance "penicillin". In
a lecture many years later, Fleming spoke of his accidental
discovery of penicillin: "I have been trying to point out that in
our lives chance may have an astonishing influence and, if I may
offer advice to the young laboratory worker, it would be this --
never to neglect an extraordinary appearance or happening. It may
be -- usually is, in fact -- a false alarm that leads to nothing,
but it may on the other hand be the clue provided by fate to lead
you to some important advance."
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SW 1999 24 Sep
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PRAXIS 17 Sep 2001 http://scienceweek.com/praxis

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9. TRANSGENIC CROPS BACKED FOR POOR NATIONS
Mark Schrope (NAT) discusses a recent United Nations annual
report that states that the doubts in rich countries about
genetically modified crops are damaging to poor countries that
urgently need these crops. The benefits of genetically modified
crops to developing countries are likely to outweigh their risks
if their use is properly controlled. The report states that
genetic modification and other emerging technologies should be
more widely applied to alleviate poverty and malnutrition in poor
countries. However, the UN report is not a blanket endorsement
 of transgenic crops, but rather it recommends that developed
countries consider the expanded use of transgenic crops on a
case-by-case basis. The report states that the risks of
genetically modified crops would be best managed if there were
more interaction between rich and poor nations, and also if
developing countries with experience of transgenic crops --
particularly China -- were to share their information more
widely. United Nations officials believe the debate on
genetically modified crops has been distorted by "scare stories"
from environmentalists, with the debate largely ignoring the
potential of such crops to transform the agriculture of poor
countries. But the report also notes that the corporations
selling the crops have downplayed the difficulties these
countries may face in properly monitoring how the crops are used.
-----------
NAT 2001 412:109
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-------------------
Related Background:
ON BIOTECHNOLOGY AND FUTURE WORLD FOOD PRODUCTION
The consumption of nutrients is one of the main activities of all
living systems, and the development and improvement of production
of nutrient sources ("food") has been one of the main activities
of the human species throughout its history. It is generally
believed that the application of new techniques in molecular
biology and genetics to agriculture will be of great importance
to our species in the next century, and indeed that application
is already underway and essentially constitutes the beginnings of
a revolution in the technology of nutrient production.
Technological revolutions, however, are hardly ever without
opponents, people made uneasy by the idea of change and the
possible risks of change. Indeed, the risks are sometimes severe,
involving social and economic upheavals in large populations.
These days, one focus of such opposition to change is the
introduction of new methods in agricultural technology,
particularly the application of genetic engineering techniques to
crop production. At the present time in human history, the prime
movers in applied science are in the commercial sector, profit-
making enterprises that essentially put up the capital required
for applied science in order to bring a return on the investment
to their shareholders. That is our current system, and in the
context of agricultural technology, it is to be expected that
those corporate enterprises responsible for the application of
genetic engineering to agriculture will bear the brunt of vocal
opposition generated by fears of technological innovation. One
corporate enterprise that has received a good deal of that brunt
is the Monsanto Company, a leader in the application of genetic
engineering in agriculture worldwide. Today, in the United
Kingdom, protesters wreck experimental crops designed to improve
food production; in 1815, in the same region, protesters wrecked
the new machines of the Industrial Revolution designed to improve
the production of cloth and other goods.
... ... G.M. Kishore and C. Shewmaker (Monsanto Company, US)
present a review of the application of biotechnology to improve
human nutrition in developing and developed regions of the world,
the authors making the following points:
     1) Since the beginning of this century, agriculture has
intensified with a) the discovery of economical chemical
processes to reduce nitrogen to ammonia and the use of
nitrogenous fertilizers; b) superior genetics with hybrid as well
as varietal crops; c) the discovery and use of chemical
pesticides to manage weeds, microbes, and insects.
     2) Over the past 50 years, society has faced the challenge
of feeding an ever-growing world population. Human population has
literally doubled in the last 40 years and increased 6-fold in
the last 200 years. The challenge over the next 50 years will be
to not only feed more people, but to do so in a manner which
takes into account probabilities such as the following:
... ... a) There will be less arable land. A combination of
overplowing, overgrazing, and deforestation has caused soil
erosion to exceed soil formation. Countries particularly hard hit
are those in continents like Africa, where soil is shallow to
begin with. The next generation of farmers in Africa will need to
feed not the 719 million people of today, but the 1.45 billion
people in the year 2025.
... ... b) There will be fewer resources, particularly
nonrenewable resources such as phosphorus and potassium,
 which are used in fertilizers. While it can be argued that we have
sufficient natural deposits of these minerals to last another 200
years, technologies that minimize ore extraction and dispersion
over vast areas of land will enhance the sustainability of our
agricultural systems.
... ... c) There will be less water, and the quality of remaining
water will be reduced as demand increases. Water use has tripled
since mid-century, and water tables are falling around the world.
Seventy percent of all the water pumped from underground or drawn
from rivers is used for irrigation, and if we face a future of
water scarcity, we also face a future of food scarcity.
... ... d) Fewer people will engage in primary agriculture in
both developed and developing countries. In the US, less than 1
percent of the population is engaged in primary agriculture,
compared with 60 percent of the population in the early 1900s.
     3) Biotechnology is a discipline that has developed rapidly
during the last two decades. This technology is based on the
ability to introduce precise genetic changes into an organism.
Plant biotechnology, in particular, has evolved rapidly over the
course of the last 15 years. Every major crop can be subject to
precise genetic modifications based on our ability to introduce
and express genes in crops. Plant biotechnology, therefore,
should substantially augment plant breeding, which until now has
been based on the ability to harness genes into plants either by
sexual crossing or laboratory techniques such as cell fusion.
     4) Concerning the herbicide "Roundup" (a Monsanto product),
and the genetic engineering of crops that resist that herbicide
so the herbicide can be used to protect those same crops against
weeds (it is such genetically engineered crops that have provoked
militant destructive protests in the UK), the authors present the
following details: "Roundup-Ready" soybeans (the genetically
engineered crop) contain a gene encoding the enzyme
5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase, an enzyme which is
involved in the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids in plants.
The gene for this enzyme, when the gene is naturally present in
soybeans, produces a form of the enzyme sensitive to glyphosate,
the active ingredient of the herbicide Roundup. In genetically
engineered Roundup-Ready soybeans, the gene has been replaced by
a gene that encodes a catalytically active but glyphosate-
tolerant form of the same enzyme. Expression of the new gene in
plants renders in those plants adequate tolerance to the
herbicide, which can then be used to protect the plants from
weeds [*Note #1].
-----------
PNAS 1999 96:5968
-----------
Notes:
... ... *Note #1: Editor's note: Such are the scientific elements
underlying the protest destruction of experimental and
demonstration crops in the UK and elsewhere. Given a hundred
years and a bit of luck, the same gene modification could perhaps
be achieved with the old technique of plant breeding. It is an
instructive irony that the same gene modification using the old
technique would probably not produce a single protest anywhere.
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SW 1999 2 Jul
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PRAXIS 17 Sep 2001 http://scienceweek.com/praxis

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10. A DIAGNOSTIC MARKER FOR BLADDER CANCER
Ted Agres (na) discusses a new diagnostic test for bladder
cancer. Urothelial bladder cancer, the 4th most common cancer in
men and the 8th most common cancer in women, accounts for more
than 54,000 new cases and 11,200 deaths annually. Cystoscopy and
cytology, used to detect this transitional cell cancer in situ,
have significant drawbacks, including relatively low sensitivity,
patient discomfort, and infection risks. Now a new US/European
research consortium wants to create a simple and cost-effective
noninvasive diagnostic test to replace cystoscopy and cytology.
The consortium, which includes D.C. Altieri (Yale University,
US), will soon initiate multicenter trials to discover which of 7
recently identified molecular markers, alone or in combination,
is the most accurate detector of bladder cancer. One of the most
promising markers is the protein "survivin", an enzyme inhibitor
of apoptosis that is selectively overexpressed in human cancers
and that correlates highly with the disease but not with healthy
tissue. The protein survivin is produced by the gene _survivin_,
and is the smallest member of apoptosis inhibitors. In addition
to bladder cancer, this protein is abundantly found in cancers of
the colon, brain, lung, skin, etc. However, survivin is generally
not detected in normal tissue adjacent to the malignancies. The
Altieri group at Yale discovered survivin in 1997, and they have
developed a 1-step system for detecting survivin in voided urine.
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TS 2001 25 Jun
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11. ECOLOGICAL FORECASTING
J.S. Clark et al (Duke University, US) discuss ecological
forecasting. Scientists and policy-makers can agree that success
in dealing with environmental change rests with a capacity to
anticipate. Unprecedented threats to human civilizations are
posed by rapid change in climate and chemical cycles, depletion
of natural resources that support regional economies,
proliferation of exotic species, spread of disease, and
deterioration of air, water, and soils. Continued food, fiber,
and freshwater supplies and the maintenance of human health
depend on our ability to anticipate and prepare for the uncertain
future. An evolving science of ecological forecasting is
beginning to emerge and could have an expanding role in policy
and management. In situations where uncertainties are large and
impossible to quantify, information content is necessarily low
and decisions can be complex. Rarely can policies direct an
outcome. Instead, policies are often designed to affect outcomes
by influencing choices made by vast numbers of people. The
effects can extend beyond their intended targets and even have
countervailing impacts. For example, restrictions on tree
harvesting in one region can lead to intensified harvesting
elsewhere, as trade offsets local scarcity. Thus environmental
restrictions can lead to export of environmental hazard from one
region to another.
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SCI 2001 293:657
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12. OVERFISHING AND THE COLLAPSE OF ECOSYSTEMS
J.B. Jackson et al (University of California San Diego, US)
discuss the collapse of ecosystems. Few modern ecological studies
take into account the former natural abundance of large marine
vertebrates. There are dozens of places in the Caribbean named
after large sea turtles whose adult populations now number in the
tens of thousands rather than in the tens of millions of a few
centuries ago. Whales, manatees, dugongs, sea cows, monk seals,
crocodiles, codfish, jewfish, swordfish, sharks, and rays are
other large marine vertebrates that are now functionally or
entirely extinct in most coastal ecosystems. Place names for
oysters, pearls, and conches conjure up other ecological ghosts,
those of marine invertebrates that were once so abundant as to
pose hazards to navigation, but are witnessed now only by massive
garbage heaps of empty shells. Such ghosts represent a far more
profound problem for ecological understanding and management than
currently realized. Evidence from retrospective records strongly
suggests that major structural and functional changes due to
overfishing occurred worldwide in coastal marine ecosystems over
many centuries. Severe overfishing drives species to ecological
extinction because overfished populations no longer interact
significantly with other species in the community. Overfishing
and ecological extinction predate and precondition modern
ecological investigations and the collapse of marine ecosystems
in recent times, raising the possibility that many more marine
ecosystems may be vulnerable to collapse in the near future.
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SCI 2001 293:629
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13. SW ARCHIVE:
OZONE DEPLETION AND PLANT DNA DAMAGE
Ozone [O(sub3)] is a compound formed by several means, including
a) exposure of oxygen gas to ultraviolet radiation; and b) the
passage of electric sparks through air. Ozone is a blue gas and a
blue-black solid and liquid, melting point -193 degrees
centigrade, boiling point -112 degrees centigrade. Ozone gas is
present in only trace quantities in the atmosphere of Earth: if
all the ozone in the atmosphere were brought down to sea level,
the layer of ozone would be only approximately 4 millimeters
thick. Nevertheless, ozone in the outer atmosphere (lower
stratosphere; 15 to 30 kilometers above the surface) acts to
shield the Earth from excessive radiation, particularly
ultraviolet radiation of 280 to 315 nanometers wavelength (UV-B),
the UV band that is most dangerous to living systems. UV-B
radiation is lethal to simple unicellular organisms (algae,
bacteria, protozoa), and to the surface cells of higher plants
and animals. UV-B radiation damages DNA and is responsible for
sunburn in human skin. In addition, the incidence of skin cancer
in humans has been statistically correlated with the observed
surface intensities of the UV wavelengths between 290 and 320
nanometers which are not totally absorbed by the ozone layer.
In the lower atmosphere (*troposphere), ozone forms from
combustion gases and is a major air pollutant contributing to
*photochemical smog. Since the discovery in 1985 that an ozone
hole develops over the Antarctic in late winter and early spring,
intense research efforts have been devoted to clarifying the
roles of atmospheric transport and chemistry in stratospheric
ozone changes.
... ... M.C. Rousseaux et al (9 authors at 3 installations, AR
US) present a study of the impact of ozone depletion and UV-B
radiation on plant DNA damage in southern South America. The
authors make the following points:
     1) The most important consequence of the depletion of
stratospheric ozone is the increased transmission of solar UV-B
radiation to the Earth's surface. Present levels of stratospheric
ozone are at the lowest point since the measurement began in the
1970s. Ozone depletion is most pronounced over the Antarctic
continent, where ozone levels commonly decline by more than 70
percent during late winter and early spring. Acute effects of
ozone depletion on native organisms have been documented only for
marine ecosystems of Antarctic waters. For example, it has been
shown that increased UV-B can reduce *phytoplankton
photosynthesis in the marginal ice zone when the ozone hole is
overhead, reduce phytoplankton cell densities, and increase the
DNA damage burden in *icefish eggs. Virtually nothing is known
about the consequences of ozone depletion and increased solar UV-
B on natural ecosystems located outside Antarctica.
     2) The authors report that the temperate ecosystems of
southern South America have been subjected to increasingly high
levels of ozone depletion during the last decade. In the spring
of 1997, despite frequent cloud cover, the passages of the ozone
hole over Tierra del Fuego (latitude 55 degrees south) caused
concomitant increases in solar UV, and the enhanced ground-level
UV led to significant increases in DNA damage in the native plant
Gunnera magellanica (a perennial herb). The fluctuations in solar
UV explained a large proportion (up to 68 percent) of the
variation in DNA damage, particularly when the solar UV was
weighted for biological effectiveness according to *action
spectra that assume a sharp decline in *quantum efficiency with
increasing wavelength from the UV-B into the UV-A regions of the
spectrum.
     3) The authors conclude: "Our data indicate that the UV
variations that take place during early spring, which to a large
extent are caused by ozone depletion, result in corresponding
changes in DNA damage density in naturally occurring individuals
of G. magellanica... The high correlation in the present case is
probably due to the fact that, as a photosynthetic organism, G.
magellanica is obligatorily exposed to sunlight, and therefore to
solar UV. Animals may afford to colonize habitats less exposed to
radiation, and mobile forms may even actively seek shelter in
response to high UV-B or to environmental variables that
correlate with UV-B radiation levels."
-----------
PNAS 1999 96:15310
-----------
Notes:
... ... *troposphere: The term "troposphere" refers to the lowest
10 to 20 kilometers of the atmosphere (with the lower boundary
the surface of the Earth).
... ... *photochemical smog: Air pollution in the form of a brown
haze often seen over cities, occurring on sunny days in locations
with large volumes of automobile traffic. Such smog is produced
when sunlight acts on nitrogen oxides, ozone, and hydrocarbons.
Photochemical smog is a respiratory irritant in man, and can kill
or alter plant tissues.
... ... *phytoplankton photosynthesis: In general, the term
"photosynthesis" refers to the series of chemical reactions by
which plant cells transform light energy into chemical energy
through the production of various compounds and oxygen from
carbon dioxide and water. Phytoplankton (photoplankton) are
small, usually microscopic, aquatic plants capable of
photosynthesis; e.g., unicellular algae. Phytoplankton and
plankton are not equivalent. The term "plankton" is a general
designation for various drifting microscopic aquatic organisms in
the upper regions of the oceans, both photosynthetic and non-
photosynthetic.
... ... *icefish: A member of the family Salangidae; small
teleost fishes. A "teleost fish" is one of a group of bony fish,
with over 17,000 different species ranging from eels to trout.
... ... *action spectra: In general, an "action spectrum" is a
graph showing the range of wavelengths over which a photochemical
reaction occurs. The action spectrum indicates which wavelengths
of light are most effective for driving the reaction.
... ... *quantum efficiency: In the context of a radiation-
induced process, the term "quantum efficiency" refers to the
actual number of species which are decomposed or reacted per
quantum of energy absorbed.
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SW 2000 4 Feb
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PRAXIS 17 Sep 2001 http://scienceweek.com/praxis
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Related Background:
ON STRATOSPHERIC OZONE
... ... D.W. Fahey and A.R. Ravishankara present a review of
current research on stratospheric ozone, the authors making the
following points:
     1) Average ozone concentrations in the polar stratosphere
show a pronounced cyclical variation over the course of the year.
In winter and early spring, ozone builds up at the poles as
ozone-rich air is transported from lower latitudes toward the
polar regions. But when transport to high latitudes slows and
solar illumination increases in late spring and summer, catalytic
ozone destruction leads to a substantial decrease (approximately
30 percent).
     2) Ozone is produced via solar ultraviolet photolysis of
oxygen and destroyed through catalytic cycles involving reactive
nitrogen, halogen (chlorine and bromine), and hydrogen species.
     3) The balance between photolytic production, transport, and
chemical destruction determines the abundance of ozone at any
particular stratospheric location. This balance is also strongly
season dependent. In addition, the relative contributions of the
3 types of catalytic destruction of ozone differ between the
summer and winter-spring seasons.
     4) During the summer, large regions of the polar
stratosphere receive uninterrupted sunlight for many weeks.
Photolysis reactions, several of which are complete ozone
destruction cycles, occur continuously under these conditions.
Total ozone concentrations therefore continuously decrease
throughout high latitudes in late spring and early summer.
     5) The authors suggest that we now understand in some detail
how the combined effects of transport, chemical ozone production,
and catalytic ozone loss control ozone during the annual cycle of
stratospheric conditions. The summer ozone decreases at high
latitudes will persist in the future because natural reactive
nitrogen rather than human-induced reactive halogen species are
primarily responsible for ozone destruction in those regions. In
contrast, the winter-spring ozone destruction will gradually
lessen in the next decades as halogen emissions steadily decrease
-- barring other changes to the stratosphere such as major
cooling of this region due to greenhouse gases.
-----------
SCI 1999 285:208
SW 1999 27 Aug
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PRAXIS 17 Sep 2001 http://scienceweek.com/praxis

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14. ABBREVIATIONS FOR SOURCES:

APL: Appl. Phys. Lett.; AS: Amer. Scientist; BW: BusinessWeek;
CEN: Chem. & Eng. News; DIS: Discover; GD: Genes & Dev.; GR:
Genome Res.; JACS: J. Amer. Chem. Soc.; JAMA: J. Amer. Med.
Assoc.; JCE: J. Chem. Educ.; NAT: Nature; NEJM: New Engl. J.
Med.; NMED: Nature Medicine; NYT:  New York Times; PNAS: Proc.
Natl. Acad. Sci.; PT: Physics Today; SA: Scientific American
SCI: Science; SW: ScienceWeek; TR: Technol. Rev.; TS: The
Scientist

In the text, the affiliation following the author's name is the
affiliation of the lead author. The indication (na) signifies no
known research affiliation.

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